Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Medical Technology in Today’s Society Essay

Medical technology in today’s society is often seen as a treatment or cure for human health issues. The term medical technology refers to the diagnostic or therapeutic application of science to improve the management of health. Unfortunately, the negative impacts of this technology are often left unexposed to the public until too late. Medicine, such as drugs, is often perceived to be of benefit to humans as it is used to cure various diseases. On the other hand, medicine can also be highly damaging. Using medicine incorrectly; consuming it in small dosages, in excess, or using it abusively; can be injurious to peoples’ health. Modern medical technology can also be damaging for human well-being but this effect is not restricted to health. Throughout time people have become increasingly reliant on modern medicine. This is especially so in today’s modern society. Medical intervention by use of technology has been able to help prolong many lives. An example of this is those who suffer from asthma. These sufferers may use air purifiers and/or nebulizers along with prescribed medication to help them live more comfortable and longer lives. It can be deemed a miracle that we are able to help so many people overcome their illnesses with medical technology. The current technologies available are able to do incredible things but people must be constantly aware of other modern technologies that can interfere and put the patient at risk. An example of this is the pacemaker which has the ability to save a person’s life and ultimately extend it. However, external factors can interfere with medical technology and ultimately put the patient at risk. For example, radiation from everyday items such as microwaves to wireless devices such as mobile phones can affect the operation of the pace maker. Thus medical technology has a negative impact on the user of this device as it places environmental limitations on where he or she can go. Users of such a device therefore need to be continuously wary of their environment. In addition, the implementation of a pace maker prevents users from undertaking MRI scans as the process interferes with the function of the device. This is a prime example of medicine acting against itself, All medical technology needs to be treated and used with caution. Respirators need to be constant monitored and the same applies for the simplest drips. Hospitals nowadays are equipped with technology that requires the operating knowledge of hospital staff and medical professionals. The medical technology that is used in hospitals needs to be carefully monitored. Misuse could lead to an accident that has the possibility to cause a long term negative effect for the patient. It is due to the above reason that today, proficient clinical settings require the consistent expertise of all medical staff in relation to the operation of medical technology. Medical technology was invented for our health and well being. However there is always the risk of unforeseen consequences. An example of this is LASIK (Laser-Assisted In-Situ Keratomileusis) eye surgery, an operation where a patient has his or her vision corrected. Eyesight clinics advertised that the operation would improve a person’s vision and give freedom to those who did not like wearing glasses or contacts all the time. Before user a laser to correct the vision the operation required the practitioner to cut open the patient’s corner. During the trial stages of the operation, this procedure led to several unsuccessful results where the patients suffered from extremely dry eyes, milky vision and poorer eyesight than prior to the operation. Other disastrous results included foggy visions, starbursts around lights and double vision. These after effects negatively impacted the lives of the patients greatly as they now had worse vision than prior to the operation. However, it is thanks to researchers that the medical technology in this field has advanced to a level where the risks are now minimal. These professionals are currently working on a new method of corrective eye surgery where it will not be necessary to cut open the cornea before lasik surgery is used. There will be even less of a chance that things will go wrong if the answer to this problem is found. The Gamma Ray, used to eliminate cancerous cells around the brain without the use of open surgery, is another example where medical technology could have negative effects. Its intention was to cure people with cancerous cells in places of high risk or in places that could not be safely accessed by open surgery. The risk lies in the calculation of the amount of radiation that is directed at the cancer. If there is a miscalculation the laser may destroy the cancer and other cells around it, leading to brain damage. From these two examples one can see that there is a limit to how medical technology can be used. Drugs created by medical technology are intended to help humans recover from their illness or improve their condition, however they are harmful if taken in small dosages, in excess or if used in the wrong way. For example if more that 400mg of vitamin E if is taken a day it will act as a blood thinner. Large doses of vitamin A causes heart problems. An overdose of cold and fly medications can lead to liver failure. Medicine, such as antibiotics are often perceived to be of benefit to humans as it is commonly used to treat bacterial infectious diseases. On the other hand, antibiotics can have unpleasant consequences if taken in dosages that do not completely eradicate the pathogen, thereby contributing to resistance. Antibiotics can also be used abusively when physicians prescribe the drug unnecessarily or if patients become complacent and do not adhere to the necessary antibiotic therapy. From these examples it is easy to see that medicines can cause adverse effects if taken in excess, small dosages or if used in the wrong way. Lack of funding for medical technology can cause negative effects on the genetic fitness of populations. It can bring about misleading information to the creation of a cure. As new diseases are constantly emerging, doctors, scientists and researchers need to know as much information about the sickness before they can find a cure. They need to know specific information such as the lifespan of the offending pathogen, if the disease is a virus, the exact signs and symptoms and the genetic make up before they can start research on the cure. However, lack of funds means that research projects may be delayed or even stopped before a cure is found. Researchers need the money so that they will have access to proper equipment and resources. Without it, they may not be able to conclude a research project that has the potential to find information that will lead to a cure. A major issue in medical technology is regulation. Ethical considerations need to be recognised and evaluated before research can continue. Also the lack of funding also means that cures cannot be tested thoroughly. All cures, whether they are over the counter drugs or prescription medications to medical technology (electronic thermometers), need to be thoroughly tested before they can be passed onto the market or used safely by professionals. In addition, the testing regimes may incur societal backlash due to experimentation on animals. As a result, lack of funds can prevent cures from being formed and this negatively impacts the public. Medical technology is very important for those with diseases and those who are ill or injured. For people with asthma a breathing machine may be essential for life, without it breathing may become difficult and even dangerous. Medical technology can add years to our lives and can make life better. It enables us to live past the normal expectancy of life. Technology has so many benefits. Without it we would not be able to travel, contact others around the world, entertain, or educate as well as we do. Medical technology is perhaps the most important technology of all.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Classroom Management Essay

Classroom management is one of the most important functions of good instruction. It refers to the planning, directing, and controlling of classroom activities that can be carried on efficiently and economically. It is relatively confined to the more mechanical aspects of teaching activities. Some of the things a teacher should consider in planning classroom management are consistency in the exercise of rules or standard set by the students themselves, regulations on seating and attendance, the handling of instructional materials and equipment, and the control of activities during the class period. The success or failure of teaching is determined often by the way the class is organized and managed. A well-managed class creates an atmosphere conducive to exchange an interaction and will develop well-disciplined students who participate in class activities (Hibaya:2003). Successful teaching and learning are affected by many factors. One of which is the classroom itself. Classroom is where all the participants are involved in teaching and learning interaction. It accepts that teaching and learning do take place anywhere and everywhere. It is said that a good teacher should be able to teach in spite of unfavorable circumstance. However, teaching in an atmosphere conducive to learning is always an advantage. The proper setting can make up in the other areas that affect student learning. In the classroom culture there is a direct connection between respect and credibility. In other words, if a student respects the leader, he is more likely to pay attention to the teacher who teaches him. Teachers have to earn respect when they abdicate being in charge of their own classroom resulting in the loss of large part of the students belief in their credibility as a teacher. If the teacher loses credibility, the students will learn less from them sometimes substantially less. Teaching Mathematics is not an easy task. The teacher should give more motivations to catch up the attention of the students in learning Mathematics. Among the five major subjects namely: 1) English; 2) Filipino; 3) Science; 4) Mathematics; and 5) Makabayan ; more of the students dislike Mathematics in the sense that it is very difficult subject. Cagbabanua (2002) opined that in order for one to compete globally, he should be an excellent fellow in mathematics and science. However, only few Filipinos are good in the two areas mentioned above specifically in the latter subject. According to Jaymalin (1997:12), students are not good in Algebra, Chemistry, measurements and proportionality. In fact, he stressed that the Philippine educational system is declining. He warned that something should be done, otherwise neighboring countries will overtake the Philippine nation. He mentioned that to improve the nation’s standing, the teachers should engage in serious classroom teaching. Proper assessment of learning outcomes should be given due consideration since this reminds teachers and students of what they lack in the teaching-learning process. Furthermore, parents should make a religious follow-up of what their children are doing in school. From time to time they should hear feedback from teachers who are entrusted to take care of their children during daytime. It should be remembered that Mathematics learning is indeed important in this modern era. Mathematics education plays a vital role in the lives of man. Every citizen should acquire competence and development of power qualitative thinking and of the use of mathematics procedure in daily living. It is never-ending struggle to help the students to become literate, to acquire mathematical concepts and skills and to develop favorable attitudes toward mathematics. Time and again curriculum planners, policy makers and researchers have been exploring the extent through which numeracy among students develops and improves via mathematical instruction. The quality of mathematics education in the country is alarming as stipulated in research findings. However, some measures have been exhausted to address this discipline’s status which are attributed to multi-faceted reasons and causes. William Betz as cited in Salazar (2001:365) said that a citizen of the modern world cannot afford to be ignorant of mathematics because the world people live in is so highly mathematical. Hence, effective mathematics instruction has become an absolute necessity in all levels of education, particularly in the elementary level for it is here where initial mathematics foundation is laid and basic mathematical concepts are first developed. Quality mathematics education in the higher levels would only be possible if the mathematical foundation in the elementary level is solid and strong. The issue on low quality mathematics education causes more implication as people strive to deal with the plethora of globalization, educational reforms, technological change and survival issues. Mathematics as one of the languages of survival should be an attendant tool to reengineer the nomenclature of the twenty-first century criterion. It is important for without it, the students would be wanting computational skills which are very necessary in the present society. He is able to communicate with people who live about him and work with him; thus mathematics contribute to effective citizenship. It always held a key in positioning the school curriculum because it has been considered a knowledge indispensable to the educated man. In recent years, the educational system is faced with many educational problems including an oversupply of unqualified teachers, substandard quality of instruction, high drop-out rate, poor quality output and lack of textbooks and reading material. Because of these problems, it cannot deliver efficient and effective teaching-learning process. Sutaria as cited in Vios (2000), pointed out that although one cannot discount the other school elements, the teacher stands out as the primary factor behind the deterioration of some schools. She added that, â€Å"for sometimes, elementary education has been a poor step-sister in the Philippine education family. It has been referred to as education system’s weakest link and its products have often been assailed as ineffective for the world of work†. Good teaching therefore, is determined to a large extent by teachers. Obviously, teachers are a vital component of the school system in creating the excellent teaching-learning environment. Good teaching involves certain personal qualities of teachers. The identification of able teachers, the likelihood of attaining desirable teaching-learning outcomes is substantial. The teacher must manage his students so that teaching may take place. Potentials of the teacher become less important if he is unable to control his students in the classroom, hence little learning takes place. Many worthwhile mathematics tasks have been introduced to make learning effective. The idea of just verbalizing the rules and principles in mathematics and presenting examples and solutions on the chalkboard have undergone improvisation. Innovative approaches have been intertwined with the usual class presentation. Students can learn to think mathematically when teachers help them develop the conceptual and proce dural understanding of the contents of mathematics. The researcher chooses this study in order to evaluate the selected approaches in classroom management employed by the secondary school teachers. Through this the researcher will probe deeper to identify the students’ performance in Mathematics. Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework This study will anchor on several theories of learning. Ornstein (1990:58) provided some bases of this study. He enumerated several approaches to classroom management, namely: 1) assertive approach, 2) business academic approach, 3) behavioral modification approach, 4) group managerial approach, 5) acceptance approach, and 6) success approach. The assertive approach to classroom management accepts teachers to specify rules of behavior and consequence for disobeying them and to communicate these rules and consequence. The classroom manages in such a way that students should always remember who is in charge of the classroom. Teachers hold students accountable for their actions. The idea is for the teachers to respond to students’ misbehavior quickly and appropriately. If misbehavior is ignored at an early stage, it will eventually become uncontrolled, more students will become disruptive and it will affect their performance in Mathematics. The business – academic approach was developed by Evertson (1989), emphasizes the organization and management of students as they engage in Mathematics work, lead to a clear set of procedures for students and teachers to follow. Behavioral modification roots in the work of Skinner (1984) as cited by Ornstein (1990:58) involve a variety of techniques and methods, ranging from simple rewards to elaborate reinforcement training. It assumes that behavior is shaped by environment and pays little attention to the causes of problems. Teachers using this approach spend little time on the personal history of students on searching for the reason for a particular problem. They strive to increase the occurrence or appropriate behavior through punishment. With regard to the group managerial approach to classroom management, Kawains (1987) as cited also by Ornstein (1990:58) emphasizes the importance of responding immediately to group student behavior that might be inappropriate or undeniable in order to prevent problems rather than having to deal with them after they emerge. He said that if student misbehaves but the teacher stops the misbehavior immediately, it remains an isolate incident and does not develop into a problem. If the misbehavior is not noticed, ignored, or allowed, continuing for too long, it often spreads throughout the group and become more serious and chronic. The present investigation will delve into the classroom management approaches of the teachers and the performance of the students in Mathematics. The independent variable of this study will include the teachers’ classroom management approaches namely: assertive, business – academic, group managerial, acceptance and success. On the other hand the dependent variable compromises the students’ performance in Mathematics.

Monday, July 29, 2019

An Effective Electoral system

An Effective Electoral system Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Law Essay Writing Service . You can view samples of our professional work here . An Effective Electoral system Electoral system or voting system is a system by which voters can make a choice between the options put forward before them. It is often used in an election or when passing a policy referendum. In a democratic state, the electoral process determines who will in charge of the political office. It is the electorate which confers the power to govern and calls government to account. A voting system contains rules for valid voting, and how votes are counted and aggregated to tally the final result   [ 1 ]   . According to Encyclopedia Britannica, electoral system, method and rules of counting votes is used to determine the outcome of elections. Winner may be determined by a plurality, a majority (more than 50% of the vote), an extraordinary majority (a percentage of votes greater than 50%), or unanimity. Candidates for public office may be elected directly or indirectly   [ 2 ]   . In this question, it was asked whether a proper electoral system wo uld be able to uphold rights. Well, first we shall look at what is a proper electoral system? A proper electoral system or also known as a proportional electoral system is a principle which attempts to ensure that the outcome of the election reflects the proportion of support gained by each competing parties. In easier words, a proportional electoral system occurs when there equal amount of votes and seats in the parliament. Proportional electoral system is totally different from the Majoritarian principle. In majoritarian system, party or candidates obtain a plurality of votes within that certain constituency wins that election. Examples of a proportional system are Single Transferrable Vote (STV) and Party List System. A single transferrable vote is a method of election where a voter ranks the candidates in order or preference. This system does not depend on the candidate being grouped into their political parties   [ 3 ]   . The votes would be transferred between candidates i n a manner similar to instant run off voting, but in addition to transferring votes from the candidates who have been eliminated to the next candidate on the list. This method is being applied in Australia, Ireland, Malta, New York, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Toledo, and Boulder.   [ 4 ]   This system is a good system as it prevents votes from being wasted; this is because all the votes given by the voters would be taken into account. And through this system, the citizens of that specific area would have more voice to voice out their opinion and problems in the Parliament, as they have not only one representative but a larger choice of representative. STV also protects the minorities. This is because the minority voters may split their votes across party lines. They can also exercise choice among candidates from the same party. However, STV has disadvantages. One of it is that this system is extremely complex, as it requires a large amount time and meticulous mathematical calculatio ns. Party List System on the other hand, is method in which the voters vote for the parties, rather that voting for the individual candidates   [ 5 ]   . For each of the quota of votes a certain party receives, one of their representatives wins a seat in Parliament. This system is being used in most European democracies and also in most newly democratized countries, like South Africa. This system is simple, easy to understand and it works in any uncomplicated manners. It does not require any complicated and time consuming calculations. This system is extremely fair and equitable from the whole distribution of seats. However, the disadvantage of this system is that no single party can secure an absolute majority in the Parliament. It also destroys the valuable local link between the MP and his constituents, as the constituents may not even know their representative. Party List System also places too much power in the hands of those at the top of the party hierarchy.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Creative Media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Creative Media - Essay Example These building blocks include the sounds and images. The value of aesthetics in animation cannot be quantified. It may appear subtle. However, aesthetics in animation plays a vital role. In other fields like cinemas, the content within a storyline as well as the storyline itself play the aesthetic role. By use of aesthetics, a story may be delivered as intended, or it may deliver the contradictory message. The thrill in collaboration of images and pixels of objects surpasses the verbal grasp. For this reason, animation may appear to be imaginary or real (Kreowski & Ehrig, 2005). In order to deliver the best aesthetics in animation, one needs to consider the coherence of the artificial models. Poor aesthetics, on the other hand, may be able to result in delivery of the wrong message. This could make a film to appear disengaging or even unprofessional. When making animated films, attention to aesthetics is inevitable. Proper aesthetics helps the audience to build their trust in the product. Consequently, they may forget that they are watching a film. This helps in impacting the intended emotions in the audience (Pikkov, & Näripea, 2010). In animation, style may be referred to as the preferences of the filmmaker in the choice of aesthetics. A filmmaker’s style may be determined by the kinds or models of worlds that he chooses to lean on. The choice of style depends on the consideration of its purity and authenticity. In addition, they may choose to exploit their prowess, experience and knowledge. Often, the filmmakers may not be quite aware of their choice of style. These filmmakers perform their chores so faithfully and naturally (Carroll, 2001). Style generates itself through a combination of ideals of the filmmaker. In essence, style emanates through the product as compared to the inputs. Sometimes, style may be misinterpreted as the superficial change of the appearance of an

A Secure Workflow for E-Government Application Essay

A Secure Workflow for E-Government Application - Essay Example Governmental agencies are providing services to their citizens and Foreign Companies via dedicated websites. Foreign users require services from the local department such as renewals of licenses and purchasing tenders. Providing a single secure portal that acts as a window to the various services is beneficial not only to these government agencies but also to their foreign customers. To get the full advantage of a workflow management system governmental agencies need a customized solution that fully corresponds to business and industry specifics. That is, a scalable platform for different tasks: This paper presents an approach for designing a secure workflow management system for e-Government portal, In section 2, we discuss some studies which are related to my research. In section 3, we briefly describe the overview of WFMS.The tools that will be used to improve the efficiency of workflow management systems in e-government portals and the advantages of utilizing these secure portals is presented in section 4. The onion routing technique is displayed in section 5and the methodology is discussed in section 6. Section 7&8 present the solution architecture and solution security, availability and scalability. We end this paper with section 9 that include future work and conclusion. Vijay Atluri from Rutgers University has claimed that Most of the commercial workflow systems provide minimal security features such as user authentication, Although some commercial WFMSs such as Flow Mark, Lotus Notes, and Chan engine can support role-based access control, they do not provide support to specify and enforce separation of duties constraints. They have to be implemented in an ad- hoc manner through a script type language [3].

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Lesson 10 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Lesson 10 - Essay Example Jarvis (14) argues that site planning is one of the subsets of a community design and must be taken into consideration in order to create a beautiful community. In attempting to describe the relationship between site planning and community design, a famous urban theorist and author Kevin Lynch came up with three key variables that distinguish site planning from community design. The variables include a site is a contiguous area; controlled by single ownership; with much greater design control (Lynch 21). From Lynch’s theory, it becomes evident that site planning truly represents an important aspect of a community design. The purpose of this discourse is to discuss site planning as a unique subset of a community design in light of Kevin Lynch’s theory of site planning. The discourse will also examine how Highland City in Florida has incorporated site planning as a key element of community design. To begin with, site planning is regarded as an important subset of community design. Jarvis (16) attributes this to the fact that it determines the form and character of the built environment of the community. These include the groupings of buildings, neighborhoods, public spaces, public improvements, and streetscapes. In this regard, planning will affect what we see or experience in the community or neighborhoods. Therefore, the community design element, at its best, should provide clear, relevant and creative guidance to the private enterprise, city and the public as they labor together to build a community whose small-town character is augmented by high quality public and private development. In his theory of urban planning, Kevin Lynch claimed that site planning functions as a feedback system between the site itself and the designer. This requires conducting a thorough initial analysis of the site and considering various ecological approaches once suggested by McHarg. Even though there are quite a number of models that can assist in describing a city or

Friday, July 26, 2019

Dunkins brands strategic performance Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Dunkins brands strategic performance - Article Example Dunkin Brands Group is the parent company of Dunkin Donuts (DD) and Baskin-Robbins (BR) that has its headquarters in, Massachusetts in the United States. Dunkin Donuts and Baskin-Robbins were initially owned by a French multinational corporation that was known as Pernod Ricard and afterwards they were bought purchased by the American Multinational company that is known as Dunkin’ Brands. Its history of offering breakfast meals that is supposed to be simple and straightforward has given it an edge over the competitors that are in the same industry such as Starbucks since the company targets the people who are modest and mind about how they spend their money. The company tries to grow in all the aspects so that it can be able to reach as many customers as possible and develop more products that will appeal to these clients in an effort to achieve proper retail placement which normally can be a delicate balance. The company partners with several grocery retailers but does not put its business in the store within a store concept that will include a grocery since they want to be within big places that are frequented by more consumers as the target more people. Dunkin’ donuts has not been left behind as far a technology is concerned since the have employed the use of software that if adopted is able to tell the location of their different stores that are to come up as the software called iSite from geoVue helps the company to analyze where it can put more restaurants that will better serve the people. In the fourth quarter of 2012 Dunkin’ Brands had a variety of highlights that included a 3.2 percent growth in the sales of its Donuts compared to the other stores that are in the United States. In the rest of the world the brand also posted significant success that was exhibited by the opening of 256 new restaurants that included 149 Dunkin Donut restaurants

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Michael Jackson Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Michael Jackson - Essay Example This is exemplified by his keeping of a pet zoo, which was not fully compliant with laws governing animal rights and civic safety. He was also accused and later exonerated of charges of child molestation and abuse. Despite the factuality of these claims, his image was irreparably tarnished by them. Thesis statement: the three main aspects of Michael Jackson’s popularity was his family background, life style and his death. This essay will flesh out this thesis. 2. His Family Background: Michael Jackson was born into a family of musicians. His parents and all his siblings were musicians. Even before he turned 10, he was a star member of the pop group Jackson Five – named after the five Jackson brothers who comprised it. But the flip side of this early fame is the lack of a proper childhood for Michael. He was forced to grow up too fast and as a result his psychological development remained uneven in later life. This explains his fondness for private zoos and strong identi fication with children. That he had retained certain childish qualities well into adulthood is borne by his legendary boyish voice. This most unique gift of Michael’s is smooth, silky and subtle. Right from a young age, his parents recognized the genius of Michael’s talents and made him the central feature of their troop performances. The only other sibling who could rival his great musical gifts is his younger sister Janet Jackson, who went on to have a successful career of her own paralleling that of Michael’s. (Feller 34) ... He was also an extraordinarily talented dancer. The dance sequences to his super-hit songs ‘Billy Jean’, ‘Beat It’, ‘Smooth Criminal’, ‘Black or White’, etc are etched in the memory of all those who were privileged to witness it. The innovative dance move of Moon Walk served as a metaphor for the out-of-the-world inspiration he brought to bear on his songs. 3. His Lifestyle: Michael Jackson’s lifestyle was both colorful and controversial. The kind of attire that Michael wore has become his trademark symbols. The white glove, the slippery hat and the studded leather jacket are all integral parts of his appearance. His dressing sense was as much a source of his appeal as his musical and dancing talent. Just with a twitch of his hand or a tap of his hat, Michael Jackson could bring to his feet. The fast rhythmic R&B and pop numbers of his were particularly popular. They were remarkable in terms of the sheer energy they possessed . Michael’s high pitched voice was suited to this genre, as the pitch carried the energy to the audience. A good indicator of his widespread popularity is the number of impersonators he has had. During the 1980s, doing a moonwalk was a rite of passage for the youth of that generation. That was how they identified themselves as capable and special adults. It was part of their process of identification with a role model and individuation from parental control. (Cole 16) It is fair to say that Michael Jackson was the greatest entertainer of his era. Though there were competitors like George Michael, Madonna, Prince, Tina Turner, etc, Jackson had the greatest fan following due to his global appeal. In other words, while many of his contemporary singers had great fan following within the United States,

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The dysfunctional family dynamics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5500 words

The dysfunctional family dynamics - Essay Example Tom’s authoritarian methodology of controlling his wife and children is akin to a command-and-conquer mentality much like that of a militant. His psychological maladjustment appears to be a direct result of self-esteem depletion that provides the foundation for his deviant and abusive behaviours. Tom’s inefficiency in farming does not provide adequate income or sustenance to the household which exacerbates the problem in their marriage and the rituals that occur in the family dynamic. Carrie maintains an uninvolved parenting style which is borne of her growing depression and anxiety caused by Tom, her miscarriages, and the financial situation that drives the current family dynamics. In relation to family dynamics and roles, in most well-adjusted households, children learn about appropriate behaviours through social role modelling under social learning theory. This states that children will learn from adult role models based on what is punished and what brings punishment (Neubert, Carlson, Kacmar, Roberts & Chonko, 2009). However, in order for this learning to be adopted, the role model must be a credible and attractive person in the eyes of the child (Neubert, et al.). This is compelling support for why each of the children maintain a unique method of coping with the abuse behaviours that they experience or witness vicariously as it is directed at Carrie. Tom does not represent a worthwhile role model and, due to the father’s controlling methodology and distorted values on autonomy, the children have a distant and uninvolved relationship with both parents. Tom’s refusal to allow the children to socialise with neighbours or school peers continue to degrade healthy adjustment, especially in the older children. â€Å"Peer acceptance and friendships are distinct constructs and contribute positively to youth development† (Brown & Lohr, 1987, p.48). Under Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and personality development, in ord er to find higher concepts for healthy adult adjustment, a sense of belonging needs to be established in the family or social environment (Gambrel & Cianci, 2003). Individuals in society need to feel that they have a certain level of control over their circumstances and receive recognition from others in order to build self-confidence (Gambrel & Cianci, 2003). Tom contributes highly to the depletion of self-confidence by removing elements of autonomous living and decision-making from both Carrie and the children. He serves as a catalyst for maladjusted youth behaviours and personality, such as that of Fiona who simply deserted the family in favour of receipt of these more important affiliation and belonging needs. A non-affiliatory environment dictates the level of relationship between family members and is borne of passive and uninvolved parenting style. Tom: Tom appears to have a low locus of control, which under this theory is a person’s belief that external parties have c ontrol over their destiny (Treven & Potocan, 2005). A more healthy and adjusted adult tends to have a higher locus of control, believing that through perseverance and internal motivations that their own destiny is controllable and manageable without blaming the external world. Tom exerts these characteristics of having a low locus of control with his animosity against those who hold college degrees (since he did not complete higher education) and with his admonishment of neighbours as being nosey or without value. Tom is using inferior coping mechanisms and defence mechanisms common to those with distorted perceptions of the world that directly impacts the family unit and individual mental health. Violence and Children: Violence

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Final research paper. ( packaging) Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Final . ( packaging) - Research Paper Example The idea of packaging is fundamentally defined as an amalgamation of science, technology and art that is mainly executed for protecting the various products during the phase of distribution, sales and storage. Its ultimate target is to diminish various ecological wastes along with preserving major environmental resources by utilizing the diverse constituents of packaging such as the factors of reusing, recycling and reducing. All these significant elements of packaging generally work together for the intention of reducing along with preserving various ecological wastes and resources respectively (Levy, 2000). The paper broadly aims towards a clear and deeper understanding regarding one of the sustainable environmental issues related to packaging along with the several disadvantages that it poses to the environment as well as business organizations. Furthermore, the aspect of innovation in environmental aspect of packaging will also be portrayed in the discussion. The factor of packaging imposes adverse effects upon the environment through number of significant reasons. The most important fact is that it is generally not biodegradable and as a result it contributes largely towards releasing greenhouse gases that eventually leads towards causing global warming. It has been observed that every product along with the production system and packaging possess certain unfavorable consequences upon the environment. It generally exhausts the natural resources and contributes largely upon creating significant quantity of wastes (Marsh & Bugusu, 2007). In this connection, for the purpose of defending the environment, it is very much essential to look into the matter that the wastes are kept at a minimum level during designing as well as packaging the products. Moreover, it is also very much necessary to recycle and to make best possible use of the waste materials that might help in money saving along with safeguarding the environment by a

Libraries, Documentation and Cross Referencing Essay Example for Free

Libraries, Documentation and Cross Referencing Essay One of the requirements for the final report in this course is to find and use information in external sources—either published, unpublished, or both. Of course, you might feel that your project needs no external information—that you already know it all. However, you should be able to identify information that you dont know and that needs to be in the report. For example, imagine you were writing backup procedures for running some sort of high-tech equipment at your workplace. Sure, you may be able to operate the thing in your sleep, but you may not know much about the technical processes or scientific principles behind it. And of course, it could be argued that such discussion is not needed in backup procedures. Background of that sort, however, might indeed be useful. Instructions often benefit by having this kind of background information—it can give readers a fuller sense of why they are doing what they are doing and a way of knowing what to do in case things go wrong. And of course, its important to have some experience using the library and other information sources in a more professional, business-like manner. In freshman writing classes, for example, writers are not challenged to push the librarys resources for all its worth—which is normally what typically happens in a technical writing project. Descriptors and Keywords. Another big issue when you begin your library search is finding those words and phrases that enable you to find the books, articles, reports, and encyclopedias that have all that information you need. Sometimes its not so easy! A keyword (also called a descriptor) is a word or phrase under which related information sources are listed. Imagine youre writing a report on the latest theories about the greenhouse effect: youd check book catalogs and periodical indexes for greenhouse effect, hoping to find lists of books or articles under that keyword. But that might not be the right one; things might be listed under the keyword global warming instead. So how do you find the right keywords? Here are some suggestions: Try to find any book or article on your topic—anything! Then explore it for the vocabulary it uses. In particular, check its listings for titles of other books and articles. Youre likely to find words and phrases that are the common keywords. Where to stop. If you faithfully go through the following suggestions, youre likely to have a long list of books, article, reports, and other sources—more than you could ever read in one semester. What to do? First of all, dont back away from at least knowing whats out there on your topic. Once you start looking at your list, youll see many things that seem to duplicate each other. If, for example, you have five or six books with roughly the same title, just pick the one that is the most recent and that seems the most complete and thorough. Many other sources will branch out into subtopics you have no interest in. And of course many of the items wont even be available in any nearby library or bookstore. Finding Information Sources Once youve convinced yourself that you need to go after some external information sources (if you havent, get in touch with your instructor) and have found some pretty reliable keywords to use, its time to start the search. Where to start though? The logical starting point is whichever information source you think is likely to have the best stuff. For hot, late-breaking topics, articles and proceedings (talks given at conferences that are published) may be the best bet. For stable topics that have been around awhile, books and encyclopedias may be better. However, if youre not sure, you may want to systematically check a number of the common types of information sources. Internet Resources Its increasingly possible to do much if not all your information gathering on the Internet and particularly through the World Wide Web. Books One good starting place for your information search is books. If you do all these searches, youre likely to end up with a monster list of books. No, you dont have to read every one of them. In fact, you may not be able to lay your hands on most of them. Check the list and try to find a book that seems the most recent and the most definitive. (Check tables of contents and indexes to see which are the most thorough, complete, and authoritative.) And, no, you dont have to read all of it either—just the parts that relate directly to your topic. As soon as you can, try to get your hands on as many of these books as you can. Check their bibliographies (list of books, articles, and other information sources consulted) at the end of the book, at the ends of chapters, and in footnotes. These will be good leads to other books that your other searches may not have found. Also, while youre in the stacks, check the books nearby the ones you have on your list; you may see other ones that could prove useful. Magazine and Journal Articles. While books give you fairly stable information and often at a higher level of generality, magazines, journals, and newspapers often give you much more specific, up-to-date information. There are two ways to approach finding journal articles: through general indexes and through specialized indexes. Here are some strategies for finding articles: Check several general indexes for your topic. These indexes cover a broad range of magazines and journals—they are more popular and are for general audiences and therefore cant be relied on specialized, technical material. Still, they are a great place to start, and if you are not being very technically ambitious with your report, they may supply you with all you need. At ACC, the general indexes include Readers Guide to Periodical Literature. Try finding your topic in the most recent volume of each of these (unless you have a topic that was hot several years ago, in which case youd want to check the index volumes for those years). Try to find a good specialized index for the field that is related to your topic. As with books, you wont be able to read all of the articles you find, nor will you even be able to get access to them (or at least right away). Try finding and reading the abstracts of the article on your list; this is a good way to get a brief picture of what the article contains and whether it will be useful to you. Just try to find the articles that relate directly to your topic, and read them selectively when you get them. Encyclopedias Another good source of introductory information is encyclopedias. You can use these either to get yourself up to speed to read and understand the more technical information you come across, or you can use the encyclopedia information itself in your report (in which youll need to document it, as discussed later in this appendix). Check for your topic in a general encyclopedia, using all the various keywords related to that topic you can think of. As with periodical indexes, encyclopedias are available in general and specialized varieties. Youre familiar with the general encyclopedias such as World Book Encyclopedia and the Britannica. And of course a number of encyclopedias are now available online in CD-ROM format (however, the content of most of these seems rather slight compared to the printed versions). These are great for starters, and in some cases they may provide all the information you need in your report. Also, check any bibliography—lists of related books, articles, and reports—that may be listed at the end of individual articles. Also try to find an appropriate specialized or technical encyclopedia in which to search for your topic. You may need more technical detail, or your topic may be a tough one not covered very well in general information sources-in which case you may want to consult specialized encyclopedias. Even in this group, there are general ones that cover a broad range of scientific and technical fields. Reference books—handbooks, guides, atlases, dictionaries, yearbooks. Another source of information reports is all those reference books out there. Every field has its handbooks (repositories of relatively stable, basic information in the field), guides (information on literature in the field, associations, legalities, and so on), atlases (more than just maps, great repositories of statistical data), dictionaries and encyclopedias, and finally yearbooks (articles, data, and summaries of the years activity in a given field). You look for them in the catalogs: when you look up your topic, youll find entries for these sorts of reference books as well as for the books mentioned earlier in this appendix. DOCUMENTATION When you write a technical report, you can and should borrow information like crazy—to make it legal, all you have to do is document it. If your report makes you sound like a rocket scientist but theres not a single source citation in it and you havent even taken college physics yet, people are going to start wondering. However, if you take that same report and load it up properly with source citations (those little indicators that show that you are borrowing information and from whom), everybody is all the more impressed—plus theyre not secretly thinking youre a shady character. A documented report (one that has source indicators in it) says to readers that youve done your homework, that youre up on this field, that you approach these things professionally—that you are no slouch. Number System of Documentation In the number system, you list your information sources alphabetically, number them, and put the list at the back of your report. Then in the body of your report, whenever you borrow information from one of those sources, you put the source number and, optionally, the page number in brackets at that point in the text where the borrowed information occurs. What to Document This question always comes up: how do I decide when to document information—when, for example, I forgot where I learned it from, or when it really seems like common knowledge? There is no neat, clean answer. You may have heard it said that anything in an encyclopedia or in an introductory textbook is common knowledge and need not be documented. However, if you grabbed it from a source like that just recently—it really isnt common knowledge for you, at least not yet. Document it! If you just flat cant remember how you came by the information, then it has safely become common knowledge for you. One other question that is often asked: do I document information I find in product brochures or that I get in conversations with knowledgeable people? Yes, most certainly. You document any information, regardless whether it is in print, in electronic bits, magnetic spots, or in thin air. How to Place the Source Indicators Its a bit tricky deciding exactly where to place the source indicators—at the beginning of the passage containing the borrowed information, at the end? If it makes sense to attribute the source (cite the name of the author or the title of the information), you can put the attribution at the beginning and the bracketed source indicator at the end (as is shown in in the following). Number documentation system: the code numbers in the text of the report are keyed to the references page. For example, [6:5] in the middle of the page from the body of the report indicates that the information came from source 6 (in References), page 5. Notice the attribution of the quotation marks the beginning of the borrowed information and the bracketed source indicator marks the end. Setting Up the Sources List A bit more challenging is setting up the list of information sources—that numbered, alphabetized list you put at the end of the document. The best thing to do is use examples. The following illustrations show you how to handle books, government reports, article from magazines and journals, encyclopedia articles, and personal interviews. Internet and Web information sources Books For books, put the name of the author (first name last) first, followed by a period, followed by the title of the book (in italics if you have; otherwise, underline), followed by a period, followed by the city of the publisher, followed by a colon, followed by the publishers name (but delete all those tacky Inc., Co., and Ltd. things), followed by the year of publication, ending with a period. In this style, you dont indicate pages. Example: book entry Magazine and journal articles Start with the authors name first (last name first), followed by a period, then the title of the article in quotation marks and ending with a period, followed by the name of the magazine or journal (in italics if you have it; otherwise, underline), followed by a period, followed by the date of issue of the magazine the article occurs in, followed by the beginning and ending page. If the article spread out across the magazine, you can write 33+. or 33(5). The latter style seems to be taking hold; in it, you estimate how many pages the article would be if it were continuous. If there is no author, start with the article or book title. If there are two authors, add and and the second authors name, first name first. If there are too many authors, use the first one (last name first), followed by et al., which means and others. [pic] Example: magazine entry Encyclopedia articles Encyclopedia articles are easy! Start with the title of the article in quotation marks ending with a period, followed by the name of the encyclopedia (in italics if you have it; otherwise, underline), followed by the period, then the year of the edition of the encyclopedia. [pic] Example: encyclopedia entry Reports. With reports, youre likely to dealing with government reports or local informally produced reports. With most reports, you may not have an individual author name; in such cases, you use the group name as the author. For government reports, the publisher is often the Government Printing Office; and the city of publication, Washington, D.C. Also, for government documents, you should include the document number, as is shown in the following example. [pic] Example: entry for a report Personal interviews, correspondence, and other nonprint sources. With these sources, you treat the interviewee or letter writer as the author, follow that name with the persons title, followed by a period, then the company name, followed by a period, then the city and state, followed by a period, then what the information was (Personal interview or Personal correspondence) followed by a period, ending with the date. [pic] Example: entry for unpublished information Product brochures. For these kinds of information sources, treat the company name as the author, followed by a period, use something identifying like the product name (including the specific model number), followed by anything that seems like the title of the brochure, followed by a period, ending with a date if you can find one (otherwise, put N.d.). [pic] Example: entry for a product brochure CROSS REFERENCING Technical reports and instructions often require cross-references—those pointers to other place in the same document or to other information sources where related information can be found. Cross-references can help readers in a number of different ways. It can point them toward more basic information if, for example, they have entered into a report over their heads. It can point them to more advanced information if, for example, they already know the stuff youre trying to tell them. Also, it can point them to related information. Related information is the hardest area to explain because ultimately everything is related to everything else—there could be no end to the cross-references. Of course, the preceding discussion assumed cross-references within the same document. If there is just too much background to cover in your report, you can cross-reference some external book or article that does provide that background. That way, you are off the hook for having to explain all that stuff! Cross-reference consists of several elements: Name of the source being referenced This can either be the title or a general subject reference. If it is a chapter title or a heading, put it in quotation marks; if it is the name of a book, magazine, report, or reference work, put it in italics or underline. (Individual article titles also go in quotation marks.) Page number Required if it is in the same document; optional if it is to another document. Subject matter of the cross-reference Often, you need to state whats in the cross-referenced material and indicate why the reader should go to the trouble of checking it out. This may necessitate indicating the subject matter of the cross-referenced material or stating explicitly how it is related to the current discussion. These guidelines are shown in the illustration. Notice in that illustration how different the rules are when the cross-reference is internal (that is, to some other part of the same document) compared to when it is external (when it is to information outside of the current document). Examples of cross-references Internal cross-references are cross-references to other areas within your same document; external ones are those to books and documents external to your document.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Video game research coms 472 Essay Example for Free

Video game research coms 472 Essay Video Game and Harassment: The medium that will be used is through video. The narrative format will resemble half way between a TED talk and a report. This will enable me to criticize the current state of online gaming and the constant harassment that occurs for women gamer. I am attempting to schedule some interviews from women gamer in order to receive feedback on the topic. At the same time, I’ve organized a couple of interviews of friends that easily fit in the higher percentage of ‘hardcore’ gamers (+ 10hrs of gaming a week), that were testers for different genre of gaming. I will also utilize documentary footage and videos from various youtube channels in regards to state real statistics about gaming, as well as my own research when applicable. Segment I: Video Game Industry at a glimpse (~2-3mins) The aim in this section is to present the importance of gaming as an industry. Doing so will further the importance of female harassment that occurs within the medium. The origin of video games is highly debated among gamers. Some consider the birth of video games in 1961, when MIT students created Spacewar! Others believe the birth of video games, through the creation of an actual video game company, placing Atari and Pong as the soul founder of video game culture, in 1972. Regardless who stemmed the culture, the success of theses few games snowballed into the arcade age, where many arcade games such as Pac-Man, Asteroids, and Space Invaders were seen in malls, movie theaters, and even grocery stores. Unfortunately, Atari made a fundamental mistake. Believing they had struck a gold mine by creating a new market, they quickly produced multiple games with no regards to the quality of the individual games. Though gamers created a viable business for companies, they also were picky about what they wanted to play. Most of theses games did not create a turnover and forced Atari to go Bankrupt. In 1985, Nintendo came out with the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) and moved the arcade to home entertainment system. It was bundled with Super Mario Bros and quickly became a huge success (Herz 20). During the 1980s, the video- game market became more and more popular, and the budget for the creation of video games increased as well, as more and more publishers and fans bought into the craze. It is at this time that the first console war occurred. Indeed, in 1989, Sega came out with the Sega Genesis, and Nintendo responded with the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Next came the Sega Saturn, and the Sony PlayStation in 1994 and 1995. Then came the Nintendo 64, in 1996 selling more than 1. 5 million units in just 3 months. By the end of this era, Sony had become a leader in the video-game market, while Sega had fallen behind and was not doing very well. Today video games (across all platforms) are a 101 billion-dollar industry, almost more then film and music combined (= 88. 3 +15). The GTA V from the Rockstar franchise has surpassed 1 billion dollars in revenue, and will most likely keep growing with a new release on recent platforms (PS4, XBOX 1). The budget for the recent Activision shooter title Destiny was near the 500 Million dollar mark. Nearly half of all US homes own one game entertainment system, and 23 percent own more than three, according to Nielsen Entertainment. Furthermore, the average age of the gamer is now 30 years old. It is not simply a hobby, but a clear culture, with different levels of gamers within it. Segment II: Who are the gamers? Where do women stand/rank? (5 mins) This segment will enable me to explain the importance of the female demographic and where they stand as a group. This segment will introduce certain interviews or comments I will capture during the 5 a 7 at the Concordia TAG center. (All stats from entertainment software association) Today from the way video games are marketed, anyone could think that the majority of gamers are men. Recent studies have debunked this myth by presenting an impressive 40% to 47% of the gaming population are actually women. Typically, the common response to this statement is quickly pushed aside; stereotyping girls to only certain genre of gaming, including limited relaxation/board games and cell phone games. Within that mindset it could legitimize the reason why certain games are only catered to men. But once again certain instances prove otherwise; in 2009 the most popular xbox game for boys/men was Halo 3, also the favourite among women! Furthermore, the top 8 favourite games on PC that year were the same among men and women! Women do play theses games, in fact there is close to 84 Million female gamer in the US alone. The issue not being addressed here is the way theses women are being treated within that culture. Segment III: Dark side of the gaming culture (5mins) This segment will enable me tackle head on the biggest issue that occurs within the gaming culture. It is not the sexist representation of women, it is not the violence depicted through different games. The biggest issue, and it solely could explain the gender divide among hard-core gamers (ratio is 1 to 7), is the recurring harassment. In this segment I will include small interviews of close friends that have been testing games for a while, and will have a critical view of the industry based on their experience. Out of all female gamers 68% of them have revealed to experience harassment from playing video games. It is a constant experience that is easily catalogued through different blogs. This is why women hide whom they are playing online, just to be able to indulge in North America new favourite pass time. There are many instances of theses accidents reported, and even gaming celebrities (Aris Bakhtanians) have shrugged the issue, explaining that it is what the culture has been built on and will not change. (â€Å"Sexual harassment is part of this culture†). Another instant is reporter Anita Sarkeesian who was harassed about her comments on the portrayal of women in video game and fundraiser attempts to raise awarness. She was forced to shut down all social media accounts due to recurring threats and phone calls threatening her. (A game was created with the simple purpose to beat this woman up). What we have here is a fundamental problem across all levels of the video game culture.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Biomedical Waste Management in Hospitals

Biomedical Waste Management in Hospitals CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Biomedical waste: Biomedical Waste Management and Handling Rules, India (1998) defines the biomedical waste as â€Å"Any waste which is produced by identification of problem, immunization of human beings or animals or treatment or in research activities pertaining or in the production or testing of biological11. According to WHO around 85% of the biomedical waste generated in the hospital were non-infectious/ non-hazardous waste similar to domestic waste. Only 15% of the waste were infectious or hazardous waste which were a risk for environment and health (10%- infectious and 5%- radioactive or chemical waste). The hospital waste was classified as sharp waste, infectious waste, pathological waste, pharmacological or cytotoxic waste, chemical waste, radioactive waste, non-hazardous general waste. Management of Safe waste from health care activities reported the biomedical waste were hazardous in nature as it contain one or more following property: 1) Infectious 2) Contain cytotoxic chemical composition 3) presence of toxic or hazardous chemicals 4) Radioactivity 5) Contain used sharped materials. Everyone coming close to hospital waste were at risk. The main group of individuals at risk was doctors, staff nurses, para medical and supportive staffs, patients, and their attenders. If hospital waste were disposed of improperly, it also risks for general public12. Rational for Biomedical Waste Management in Hospital: Biomedical waste management is a part of hospital hygiene and maintenance activities. Only 15% of the waste generated in the hospital were infectious. If improper segregation of waste at source leads to 100% of biomedical waste to be infectious. Even though biomedical waste management require lot of resources like manpower, money, material and machinery support, it is important for the following reasons13: Sharps waste like needles, hypodermic needles, scalpels and other blades, knives, infusion sets can cause cut injuries or puncture wounds. If these items were infected, it can infect all health care provider in hospital and waste handlers. Infection control practices and poor waste management can lead to the spread of hospital acquired infection among patients. Improper treatment and disposal of biomedical waste can be a potential risk to the general public especially to scavengers. Genotoxic and cytotoxic waste in hospital waste is hazardous and have mutagenic, teratogenic, carcinogenic properties. Improper disposal of genotoxic waste raises serious safety problems, both inside hospitals and after disposal, and should be given special attention. The Risk associated with chemical hazardous, at all levels the drugs to persons can handle wastes. Radioactive wastes were produced as a result of procedures such as analysis of body tissue and fluid, organ imaging and tumor localization and various investigative and therapeutic practices. These radioactive waste were a hazard to health and surrounding environment. There is a risk of air, water and soil pollution can occur directly due to improper disposal of waste or due to defective incineration emissions and ash. Biomedical waste management in India: In 1998, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, introduced the Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules which mandate to notify for the management and handling of bio-medical waste in the hospital. This rule was amended in 2003 and 2011. Even though strong legislation in India most of the hospitals were yet to achieve the recommended standards for biomedical waste management practices. An evaluation study was carried out by INCLEN (International Clinical Epidemiology Network) Program Evaluation Network (IPEN) in 2009. The study was carried out in Model Injection Centers (MICs) at 25 Partner Medical Colleges (PMC) in India. The study result showed that the biomedical waste management was poor in 82 % of primary care health centers, 60 % secondary care centers and 54 % tertiary care health centers. This showed that there was need for urgent interventions for improving systems capacity and resource in both public and private sectors14. Knowledge regarding Biomedical Waste Management Chudasama et al. (2013) conducted an observational hospital based cross sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of bio medical waste handling and its management in a tertiary hospital in Rajkot city, India. The study included all health care provider like resident doctors, intern doctors, nursing staff, laboratory technicians, ward boys, and sweeper’s worker. Among the total study participants282, 92(32.6%) where are staff nurse. The result shows that 95% of participants know about BMW, and 44% of the participant had BMW training. Around 87% of participant known the biomedical waste symbol, 85% of participant know about color codes and 89% of the participant are aware that biomedical waste can transfer disease like HIV and Hepatitis15. Vanesh Mathur et al. (2011) conducted an observational hospital based cross-sectional study on KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices) about BMW (Biomedical Waste Management) among Healthcare Personnel, 100 bedded hospital Allahabad city India. The study included all doctors, nurses, and laboratory technicians have better knowledge than sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management among the total study participants 283,60(21%) where are staff nurse. The result shows that color-coding waste containers 56 (93.3), 55(91.6) of the participant are aware that biomedical waste can transfer disease like HIV and Hepatitis16. Rekha Sachan et al. (2012), conducted a cross-sectional study on KAP regarding BMW among the Paramedical Staff and Medical in Tertiary hopital in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of CSM Medical University, Luck now, India. The Sample was 10 doctors and 20 nurses. Group A- Nursing female staff (20 nurses), Group B Doctors (10 Junior Doctors, 8 from Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2 from Paediatrics) two groups were made. 30% of the doctors and 20% nursing staff have more than 70% knowledge about BMW. 100% doctors and 60% nurses have a definitive attitude towards biomedical waste management17. Sarika P Patil et al.(2011), conducted the cross-sectional study was conducted during1st August 2011 to 30th September 2011. Healthcare Workers Awareness regarding Biomedical Waste Management (BMW) at Tertiary Hospital Government in Dhule (India). The sample was 302 health care workers in which 156 are nurses; 45 are technicians and 101 are sanitation workers. The Sanitation workers include 18 attendants laboratory and 83 sweepers performing job of transportation and waste collection Undergone Training of BMW management 49 (60.5%) nurses were training about biomedical waste management, Knowledge regarding the Number of correct Colour Bags to be provided for BMW collection68 (84%), Out of 153 participants, 41.8% (64) and 81.7%(125) were immunized for tetanus and hepatitis B. It was derived that no vaccination of Hepatitis B among 49.4% (40) nurses and 45.7% (16) laboratory technicians during 89.2 %( 33) sanitary workers.18 Sanjay Kini B et al. (2014) conducted a observational hospital based cross sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of bio medical waste management among staff of a tertiary healthcare Centre in coastal Karnataka Kasturba Medical College, Udupi district of coastal ,India. The study included all health care provider among consultants, junior residents, staff nurses, laboratory technicians and house-keeping staff in Kasturba Hospital in manipal, Among the total study participants 337, 189(56%),where are staff nurses, the result shows that nurses (62.4%) of participants know about BMW and 44% of participant had BMW training, and 46 (24.3%) Knowledge among the participants about biomedical waste management among the total staff 71 (37.6%) shows that less knowledge about biomedical waste management19. S.B. Salve, et al. (2012) conducted an observational hospital based cross sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of biomedical waste handling and its management in tertiary hospital Mahatma Gandhi Mission’s Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad [MS] India. Resident Doctors, Nursing Staff and class Employees were selected by the Stratified random sampling method. Among the total study participants110, 47 (42.7%) where are staff nurse. The result shows that 31 (66%) were having average score and 8 (17%) were having poor score, good knowledge 8 (17%), the result shows that 89.3% of participants had BMW training, remaining 10.7% participants untrained about the biomedical waste management20. Bathma Vishal et al. (2013) conducted an observational knowledge assessment of hospital staff regarding biomedical waste management in a tertiary care hospital. Bhanpur road, Bhopal, India. The study included all health all health care personals, doctors, nurses, and Lab technicians and 7 waste handlers/supporting staff. Among total participants110, 44(40%) where the nursing staff. The result shows that about the knowledge of Categories of waste in nurses 59.0%, and identify the bio hazard symbol 81.8% knows the symbol, Waste segregation in colour containers 70.5%nurses have knowledge, how to disposal method 75.0% have knowledge about the biomedical waste management, which type of disease spread in improper hospital waste management knows about 84.0%, Correct method of treatment disposal knows about 77.3% of HIV and Hepatitis21. Savan Sara Mathew et al. (2011) conducted an observational hospital based cross sectional study on Assessment of BMW practices in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ludhiana city, India. The study included all health care provider like resident doctor’s nurses and paramedical staff, among the total study participants 100, 48(48%) were staff nurses. The results show that better knowledge of the nurses more in practical aspects of BMW management. categories of BMW was 97.4% , 92.1% was color coding system, 94.7% knew the methods of segregation, 92.1% knew that waste should not be stored for more than 48 hours, and 100% of aware about the methods of waste disposal. Nurses were equal to or better than the doctors in the aspects of practice. Their knowledge was less in theoretical aspects. 73.7% were aware of BMW Management Rules 1998; 86.8% were identified the biohazard symbol while 92.1% knew the diseases spread by improper waste management22. Md. Asadullah, et al. (2013) conducted A descriptive cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practices among nursing staff in private hospitals in Udupi City. India. The study included randomly 17 hospitals (as clusters) and 4 hospitals. A pre-structured questionnaire was used. Data were collected from 166 nursing staff, HIV may transmit through BMW 130(78.3), and Hepatitis-B may transmit through BMW 137(82.5), was answered Hepatitis-C may transmit through BMW 119(71.7), Training on biomedical waste management 122(73.5%) and vaccinated about hepatitis-B 153(92.2%) was immunized23 Biomedical waste management Practice: Chudasama et al.(2013) conducted an observational hospital based cross sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of bio medical waste handling and its management in a tertiary hospital in Rajkot city, India. The study included all health care provider like resident doctors, intern doctors, nursing staff, laboratory technicians, ward boys, and sweeper’s worker. Among the total study participants282, 92(32.6%) where are staff nurse. Study result shows 74.5% of participants reported that there is good maintenance of BMW records in wards and 87% reported having hub cutter in wards. Around 84% of participants are using personal protective measures like a mask, gloves, etc. while handling BMW. The correct practice of handling disposal plastic waste, soiled dressings/plaster casts/linen waste, sharps and needles waste and human anatomical waste are 80%, 66.8%, 63% and 63.1% respectively. Vanesh Mathur et al. (2011) conducted an observational hospital based cross-sectional study on Knowledge, Practices, and Attitude about Biomedical Management Waste among Healthcare Personnel, 100 bedded hospital Allahabad city India. The study included all doctors, nurses, and laboratory technicians have better knowledge than sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management among the total study participants 283, 60(21%) where are staff nurse Study result show 44(73.3%) were correct color coding containers are used, The correct practice of handling disposal plastic waste, soiled dressings/plaster casts/linen waste, sharps and needles waste and human anatomical waste are 42(71.0), The report of injury’s 18(30%), about the biomedical waste management Rekha Sachan et al (2012) conducted cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practices regarding BMW amongst the Paramedical Staff and Medical in Tertiary Health Care Centre in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of CSM Medical University, Luck now, India. 70% and 65% of the doctors and nurses were practicing higher than 70% of the right practices as according to the university norms. The comparison of Knowledge, with practice and Attitude of groups, shows that the people with high education qualification have better knowledge. This result can attributed to their commitment and accountability in patient and ward management. Sarika P Patil et al.(2011), conducted the cross-sectional study was conducted during 1st August 2011 to 30th September 2011. Awareness of Healthcare Workers regarding BMW at government tertiary care Hospital in Dhule India. The study included of total 302 health care workers in which 156 are nurses, 45are technicians and 101 are sanitation workers. The result shows that Color coding correct disposal in block cover general waste 37 (45.7%),disposal of boy fluids 30 (37%),sharp and other type of container 65 (80.2%),72 (88.9%) of participants are using personal protective measures like mask, gloves, etc. while handling BMW. The correct practice of handling disposal plastic waste, soiled dressings/plaster casts/linen waste, Sanjay Kini B et al (2014) conducted a observational hospital based cross sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of bio medical waste management among staff of a tertiary healthcare centre in coastal Karnataka Kasturba Medical College, Udupi district of coastal ,India. The study included all health care provider among consultants, junior residents, staff nurses, laboratory technicians and housekeeping staff in Kasturba Hospital in Manipal, Among the total study participants 337, 189 (56%), where are staff nurses, Study result show 45 (23.8) % of participants reported that there is good maintenance of biomedical waste management, all nurses are immunized against hepatitis B, disinfecting sharps at the point of generation and undergone any formal training biomedical waste management, Less practice of 44 (23.3%) S.B. Salve, et al. (2012) conducted an observational hospital based cross sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of biomedical waste handling and its management in tertiary hospital Mahatma Gandhi Mission’s Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad [MS] India. Resident Doctors, Nursing Staff and class Employees were selected by the Stratified random sampling method. Among the total study participants110, 47(42.7%) where are staff nurse. Practice about biomedical waste management among staff nurses 87.2% was good practice .comparative assessment of practice among trained and untrained individuals was made, which revealed 41 (59.42%) of trained individuals had â€Å"Good† practices as compared to 6 (19.5%) untrained individuals. Bathma Vishal et al. (2013) conducted an observational knowledge assessment of hospital staff regarding biomedical waste management in a tertiary care hospital. Bhanpur road, Bhopal, India. The study included all health all health care personals, doctors, nurses, and Lab technicians and 7 waste handlers/supporting staff. Among total participants110, 44(40%) where the nursing staff. All nurses are according biomedical waste management rules are followed by 54.5%.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Abortion Should Not be Permitted Essay -- Argumentative Essay, Pro-life

â€Å"More than 95 per cent of all abortions are performed purely for convenience†¦ 20 per cent are for genetic reason, and the other 75 per cent are purely elective† (Deem 2). Many people hear debates about abortion and ignore it, thinking that it definitely doesn’t apply to them. Well, it does. Thousands of babies are being killed every day, and people need to take action. If we continue to allow this monstrosity to happen, imagine what could come up in the future. Before we continue, let me define some vital terms (proceed to view powerpoint or note-board; define â€Å"Viability† â€Å"Roe v. Wade† â€Å"D&X†). Since so many babies are being killed needlessly, I strongly believe that the court ruling in Roe v. Wade should be limited and enforced with fines, so that it only protects necessary abortions for women in danger. Every year, almost 150,000 women in the US alone have abortions past the first trimester, meaning that every year, abortion does not just remove so-called â€Å"non-viable† tissues, but murders 150,000 viable babies. This also happens almost everywhere around the world, most prominently in places like China and India where having a son is not just a desire but a need. This problem runs so deep in the arguments of our country and others, that unethical medical procedures, such as D&X, are being ignored. This problem runs so deep that the issue lies in mere definitions- what is the definition of â€Å"viable†? When is a baby technically â€Å"viable†? What is D&X? Where does it say that D&X is unlawful? And if it is, why aren’t people stopping it from happening? And so on. Our founding fathers intended for America to be a country of freedom, a country of the people’s choice. Many proponents of pro-choice promulgate that women should be given... ...ers to your representative, mayor, governor, other city official. The more letters they receive, the more they will listen to our voices. We should make abortion a necessity rather than a convenience by enforcing abortion laws, creating new ones, and creating standard definitions. Thousands of women each year get abortions because they do not believe they can- they don’t believe they can support their child, they don’t believe they can raise them successfully, they don’t think they can be a good parent, they don’t think they can send them off to college, they don’t think they can give their child a good life, some don’t think they have the ability to raise a mentally disabled child- many just don’t think they can. If we can make abortion a necessity rather than a convenience, I believe that we will be able to help future mothers make the right decision.

Every Child Counts :: Teaching Education Careers Essays

Every Child Counts Growing up I loved being surrounded by children. Looking back on my earlier years, I realize that teaching has always been a desire of mine. As a child I read to my dolls, pretended to be a teacher to my friends, and baby-sat every opportunity that arose. No matter what the situation was, if there were children involved, you could count me in. I love the feeling of being around children; the joy they bring to a room is what makes them so special. Children are wonderful beings that make me laugh and realize how precious life can be. I have chosen to teach elementary age students because these are the most crucial years they will encounter as they are shaping who they will become. I believe I am taking my God-given gift of loving others, especially children, and using it to benefit the people around me. So many students are neglected, ignored, and abused because people fail to see their worth. I know that kids are creative, spontaneous, loving human beings and they have a hunger to learn. I feel I have many gifts to offer these children and hope I can have a true impact on their lives. My hope is to learn about each individual and touch them each in different ways. I know I will have classrooms filled with diversity but it will be a priority to learn something unique of each student. One thing I have noticed that happens a lot in our world is prejudices. Children are so vulnerable to different cultures and are quick to make judgments. It is my job to teach my students about these different cultures so when they see someone unlike themselves they will not make fun of them. Instead I want these children to be curious and willing to understand why people are different because it is what makes our world unique. While I am learning about them, my hope is that they are willing to learn about each other as well. I hope to unite children of all cultures by teaching them to be curious about others, learn about them, and appreciate their differences. In doing this maybe we can stop some of the prejudices they may have and build a loving community of people who think about each other instead of only themselves.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Alternative Fuels to Oil Essay -- energy oil power ethanol biodiesel h

Recently alternative fuels have been gaining popularity, especially here in the United States. The advantages of many of these fuels are being recognized with the rising cost of crude oil. Other countries around the world have been using alternative fuels for years, such as in Brazil where they have good feedstock for some fuels such as ethanol. Biofuels are also becoming cost effective with higher crude oil prices and can be completely renewable. The best thing about many of these alternative fuels is they can be readily used in standard internal combustion engines with little or no modification. The list of alternative fuels can go on forever, but some of the most common and readily adaptable fuels are: ethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen. Of course these fuels all have their drawbacks, but so do petroleum based fuels, we have just engineered around some of the disadvantages. The same thing can be done with these alternative fuels; engineer around the disadvantages. Most of these fuels do not release new carbon into the atmosphere which is a good thing, we don't need any extra carbon in the carbon cycle. The following pages explain what some of these more common fuels are as well as some advantages and disadvantages of each. Ethanol is a common fuel that can be produced from many different crops, for example corn is a common feedstock for ethanol production here in the United States. Other countries around the world produce large amounts of ethanol to power many of their vehicles. For example Brazil has a perfect climate to grow sugarcane, which is a great feedstock for ethanol. As a result many of their cars run on pure ethanol. Here in the United States you have probably heard of Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV's) which are ... ...ever with the current technologies the most economical way to produce hydrogen is by using fossil fuels. To produce hydrogen by electrolysis a current is applied to water to seperate the hydrogen molecules from the oxygen. This process is actually pretty energy efficient, from about 50-75% efficient with theoretical efficiencies from 80-94% (Electrolysis-Wikipedia). What is the best way to transport hydrogen? Because it is a gas at standard temperature and pressure, large high pressure tanks are required to transport it. This can present some safety and widescale distribution issues. Another way to utilize hydrogen gas on vehicles is with fuel cells. These cells will convert hydrogen gas into electrical energy that can be used to drive the car. With our current fuel cell technology they have a relatively short lifetime and are expensive (Fuel Cell-Wikipedia).

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Innovations In English Language Teaching Essay

Within the inter-related fields of linguistics, psychology and specifically language learning it has been recognized that language acquisition depends on several cognitive and environmental aspects. When giving instruction in a foreign language, it is also necessary to consider the language of origin already mastered by the learner, as well as the peculiarities of culture that may interfere with or otherwise have an impact on the manner in which a given language is learned (Collier, 1995). In Singapore, innovations in language learning based on these criteria have already been made, but implementation has posed a challenge (Tucker & Corson, 1997). The true language expert has a deep understanding these barriers and must be prepared to come up with ideas that facilitate the change that drives the actual implementation of these innovative processes (Reza-Hernandez & Clifford, 2003; Garcia, 1994). In Singapore, English has been acknowledged as the language of business and commerce, and therefore it has become crucial for greater strides to be made in passing on its knowledge to the citizens (Tucker & Corson, 1997). Singapore’s national university has instituted such innovations as the creation of computerized databases that hold â€Å"profiles of Singapore-based English† as a method improving the research and development in the area of English language teaching in the country (1997, p. 227). This type of research appears to enable language instructors to understand the general areas of English that need more or better instruction. Other innovations directly affecting Singapore include the new dictionary of Southeast Asian English as well as numerous conferences that promote the improvement of the language. This research hopes to add further innovations, including in the area of technology, that would build on the projects already begun and further enhance the learning of the language in the country (Chapelle, 2003; Parker, 2007; Reza-Hernandez & Clifford, 2003; Klein et al. 2006). Research Objectives The aim of this research is to find new approaches to teaching English that can be easily implemented in the Singaporean context. These will include new instructional methods, teaching aids, and the use of technologies as an integral aspect of imparting the language experience to those who learn. Research Question: How does collaborative learning, using the primary learners as mediators of the language, affect English language instruction in Singapore? Methods The major theme of the implementation strategies will be the establishment of a community of English language learners using a core group of English language institute students as mediators of the language. The use of technology will enhance the project but not be the main focus. In community building, emphasis will be placed on building bridges between and among students of language-learning institution and other schools or groups within the community (Hones, 2000; Parker, 2007; Klein, et al. , 2006). Technology will come into play as computers and the internet will provide the means of uniting persons separated by distance. It will also be used to engage the participation of native speakers of English from the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and other English speaking countries of the world. Technology will also be used as a supplement to the activities performed in the language-learning setting (Kamhi-Stein, 2000). The study will therefore take the form of an action research in which the use of existing educational software, games, and activities in English are used within an integrative context. This integrative context will involve the exposure of the language-learning institute students to activities with native speakers, which they will in turn pass on to a group of Singaporeans within a given community—perhaps children or youth group. The types of activities used will include the following †¢ internet word-searches and studies †¢ webquests (Teclahaimanot & Lamb, 2004) †¢ on- and offline word-game applications such as Scrabble †¢ watching and discussing movies in English †¢ reading and discussing books in English These will be done together with volunteers from English speaking countries who will be instructed to maintain constant dialogue with the institute student about the activities for the duration of the session. Group chats as well as one-on-one conversations will be used. Later the student will be expected to impart the knowledge gained from the session to members of the community. Activities will be monitored via reports and observation in order to provide the data for the research.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Gender Differences in Fundamental Movement Patterns Essay

Raudsepp and Paasuke (1995) studyed 60 8-year olds (33 boys and 27 girls), finding that in that location are no sex resistences in the kinematics of running. However, they found that boys arrange better in oversewn throwing and in tasks evaluating motor performances and muscle strength. Girls outperformed the boys in two tasks sit and reach and sense of equilibrium (p. 294). This work merits discussion on several fronts. First, the researchers hypothesise that computes other than biological figure for the sexual practice differences in motor skills that they found in their tests (p.301). Second, the researchers note that biological variables had been beted in prior studies (p. 294), and they made this point a world-shaking aspect of their own investigation. Third, the children were given classes ahead the testing sessions (p. 295). In hard to billhook for the results of their oeuvre, the authors hypothesize that factors other than biological could note for the sex ual practice differences. Biological factors include while, height, weight, and body fatness (p. 294). A factor that could rationalize these differences is experience.Indeed, the authors note that, in the case of round-arm throwing, girls do not choose the resembling amount of experience as boys, and that boys fox more memories of practicing overhand throwing (p. 295). In trying to eliminate biological factors from the results of their study, Raudsepp and Pausuke standardized the age factor, as they chose only 8-year olds for their study. They also metrical the height, weight, and BMI of their field of views, finding that there were no substantial sex differences in height and BMI.However, the boys were heavier than the girls (p. 297). In their choice of subjects, the researchers have chosen groups that differ only in the biological factor of weight. This is a significant point for their study, however, there are other biological factors that could have been considered and that possibly might account for whatever of the differences the authors observed. For instance, could joint duration (in proportion to height) account for the difference in stride durations in the running kinematics test?Also, if the boys and girls are resembling in height and BMI, what aspects of the body report of boys accounts for their heavier weight? An intriguing aspect of this study is that the researchers gave the children classes before the testing sessions. In these classes, children were taught the halal techniques of running and throwing (p. 295). As these classes likely wedged the childrens performance in the tests, superfluous information should have been provided to the reader. Who taught these classes?Were the instructors male or female? Were the children separated by gender in the classes, or were boys and girls taught together? An additional component that could make an ideal subject for future investigation would be to test the children both before and afte r the genteelness sessions. In this way, the elements of experience and technique could be weighed against performance, particularly in the task of overhand throwing. In summary, this study largely substantiate findings from previous studies.The authors, in their attempts to standardize biological factors, bring up important questions to consider in future studies. In the theatre of operations of biological factors What accounts for the boys heavier weight? Does sleeve length account for differences in stride length? Is there a difference in body composition or limb length that accounts for girls increased flexibility and balance? In respect to environmental factors How did the technique classes affect the childrens performance?

HRM 592 Week 5 Mini Paper Essay

HRM 592 Week 5 Mini Paper Essay

Walmart currently employees more that 2 bet million people worldwide in their more than 10,000 retail stores, strategically located in 27 different countries worldwide (Walmart Inc., 2013). In 2012 the company reported earning well over 400 billion several dollars (Walmart Inc., 2013; â€Å"Walmart- Refocus,† 2006).Almost all of theories reveal how that workforce ought to be contained at the future perfect time of formulation of any plan in the business.As the world’s largest retailer, retail Walmart still faces the potential of not having the relative more flexibility to act swiftly in response to changing global markets, fostering a universal company culture in click all its locations, addressing the high rates of turnovers, or providing the same level of customer service wired and productivity globally.Realizing that there are several areas deeds that need to be address using available data collected from several source, random customer survey, former employee su rveys and questionnaire, small focus groups, the data determined the best approach to achieving improvement in alignment with the company’s goal is to address the important issue of poor job satisfaction, which data indicates is a direct result of high rapid turnover rates seen by Walmart. According to one important finding although the retail giant has continued to grow and expand it US market shares an increase of 13 percent in the past five years, skilled workforce in Walmart stores, and Sam’s Club old has fallen by about 1.4 percent during that same first time (Ungar, 2013).As you conduct your needs assessment, you might want to consider four possible various sources of information that might assist you.

(2013). Who’s legal right about Wal-Mart’s customer satisfaction? Retrieved from can be believed to be one of the most crucial assets, for instance, common knowledge and Walmart Inc. (2013). Experience Walmart’s History. Retrieved extract from http://corporate.Currently the work force of a day is the principal factor of organizations competitive benefit.

Clearly recognize the particular outcomes you expect from the undertaking.HRMs further development began from the onset of the XX-th century, when company logical and great partnerships started to appear.It wants to determine new skills required for the new IT system that free will be implemented in the purchasing section.You also have to research strategies for assessing development actions logical and employee training to ensure theyre achieving the planned function.

Therefore, organizations may need to adapt to the new position.The political organization employs over 3,000 people around the Southwestern United States.Each client good will be given a paper with shipping.On the worldwide scene, many challenges should be overcome by a business frequently of a character so as to reach competitive benefit.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Animals Should Be Used in Scientific Research Essay

bothplace ampere-second billion fleshlys atomic image 18 employ wholly form in the progress to unitedly States as models in biological and aesculapian exam checkup look for to theme military man complaint, injury, development, psychology, and cast and physiology. explore involving faunas has contend a animation-sustaining authority in close to every major(ip) medical raise of the conclusion century. nonwithstanding today, there is no empty secondary to biomedical look with sensuals. The gigantic bulk of enquiry physicals be mice and rats bred for this purpose.Dogs, cats, and non- homosexual order Primates to captureher neb for slight than champion-half of unity part of the total, and this way pop has declined for to a greater extent(prenominal) than 25 divisions. Since 1979, the tote up of dogs and cats requisite in animate being look has declined by much than 50%. The issuing of non- merciful order Primates c al unrivalled f or represents little than .2% (.18% in 2004) and has remained relatively everlastingin the 50,000 per year sayfor the medieval decade. registerThe narrative basis sentient beings beingness apply in scientific search is that is started In atomic consider 63 and in the US by the primeval 1900s and speci whollyy during and future(a) origination warf atomic number 18 I the benefits of beast look into proceed to be recognized. succeeding(a) the Nuremberg Trials for atrocities by the Nazis during populace state of war II, friendship round out loud demanding no query on gentlemans gentleman until animate being explore had do much(prenominal) inquiry a tenable risk. Today, the volume of good deal in our ordination do jeer with the mentation of the sympathetic and responsible spend of animals in seek. there is justification standards for scientific studies on animals * The farming has descend fore national regulations giving medication th e aid and c wholly of animals in biomedical look for that be considered eventide to a greater extent all-embracing than those coat valet de chambre enquiry domains. * The savage public assistance run doctors standards of sh be for interrogation animals with get word to their housing, feeding, cleanliness, ventilation, and medical needfully and requires the example of anaesthesia or moderating drugs for potentially tender procedures and during post-operative dish out.* The US populace health attend to form requires that all institutions receiving look finances from NIH, FDA, or CDC amaze to the standards set out in the pass on for the carry off and work of look for laboratory carnals.* Institutions moldiness marry elaborated animal c atomic number 18 recommendations and set an IACUC to gibe that all animals argon hard-boiled responsibly and military manely close to commonwealth signify that all animals that be in scientific question ar in throe or incommode tour nethergoing the look for that is non unavoidably line up. The 2004 factory farm yearbook level reveals that 57% of all interrogation procedures with animals conf utilize no more than slight or transient inconvenience or mourning (i.e., an injection). In 34% of investigate procedures anesthesia and operative irritationkillers were employmentd. In 9% of the procedures, incomplete anesthesia nor pain medication could be manipulationd, as they would dumbfound interfered with query results.scientific Perspectives here(predicate) atomic number 18 4 reasons wherefore animals ar utilize in inquiry1. The principles of sort and physiology argon true for mankind and animals, specially mammals. at whizz time scientists wise to(p) that animals were alike(p) to mankind, in physiology and anatomy, it became favored to manipulation animals kind of than existence for precedent query. 2. certain strains or breeds of animals get the same distempers or conditions as homo. Animal Models are often slender to brain a affection and underdeveloped divert treatments. 3. seek meant introducing one shifting and observant the results of that one item. With animals we tin turn back their milieu (temperature, humidity, etc.), and racing shell them from unhealthinesss or conditions non colligate to the research (control their health). Although kind-hearted and animals get the disease that whitethorn be the subject of a research investigation, the diametrical life styles or sustenance conditions come across them ridiculous subjects until overture research under controlled conditions has been done. 4. We back use scientifically-valid rime of animals. data from one animal or world is non research it is a gaffe essay. To scientifically audition a hypothesis, an fit number of subjects essential be apply to statistically test the results of the research. somewhat individuals produce that we s hould use human or animals that start out a disease to learning that disease.Certainly, epidemiologic studies (tracking the fact of a disease or condition) realise provided numerous virtually-valuable insights into the font of a disease or a condition, particularly when an environmental formula is responsible. However, epidemiologic studies are palmy in totally a express number of situations. only if the study of a disease is sternly hindered or not doable when the research subjects dedicate been/are expose to a admixture of environmental factors. fit in to the American medical examination Association, humans are the most much used animal in research. However, research studies conducted on humans follow former studies conducted in animals. These animal studies practise human studies a sane risk. The animal studies are not a imprimatur of success, yet they do aver us that the human research has a middling opportunity of success.