Monday, December 23, 2019
Conflict is a natural part of small group interactions and discussions. There are times when conflict can be helpful to the group by bringing up problems that may not have been noticed by the group. There are also times when conflict can be detrimental to a group dynamic by causing the group damage. Conflict management is having the ability to manage conflict within a group where there is a good amount of conflict of ideas without a large amount of conflict of feelings (Tubbs, 2012). Blake and MoutonÃ¢â¬â¢s Conflict Grid is a model used to mange conflict within a group. I will describe a conflict I have personally dealt with in the workplace and use Blake and MountonÃ¢â¬â¢s Grid to identify the styles used from the grid as well as recommendÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It was now a revolving door of teachers. I believe the problem was the director who moved into her position so suddenly, she was corrupt and poisonous to the organization. I finally decided I could no long er work for an organization whoÃ¢â¬â¢s values did not meet my own, so I put in my notice. I did this right before an important Head Start review, so management was not happy with me. It was rumored the director changed some of the scores from their own review before the federal government came to do their own. My score was one of a few which was not changed. They asked me to stay but would not offer me more than a seventeen cent raise. This minimal raise would also include becoming a mentor teacher and training students at the local college. I did not take their offer and continued working until my last day. On my last day the CEO of the organization came with one last attempt to keep me. All she could offer me was her gratitude for a job well done for the previous years of employment. When asked what it would take for me to stay, I was honest with her and told her the one individual who was detrimental to the organization needed to be dealt with. The CEO disagreed with me and I left the preschool program. According to Blake and MoutonÃ¢â¬â¢s Grid in this example the leadership style used is Parish or Produce (quantmleap.com). There is a very low concern for people with a high concern for production. The only reason they wanted me to stay was soShow MoreRelatedConflict Management Blake and Mouton3934 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesAbstract This study presents a review of conflict management approach. It presents the various views and definitions on conflict types of conflict. It further looks at five conflict management styles of Blake and Mouton. In addition, it provides some insight into conflict management from a Malaysian perspective. Introduction Whether conflict within an organization is viewed as desirable or not, the fact is that conflict exists and is endemic. As human beings interact in organizationsRead MoreStyles of Leadership in the IT Industry2526 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesin the Information Technology Industry. It attempts to identify the leadership styles of managers in various levels of the organization, using the Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid. _____________________________________________________ Key words: Organizational Culture, Attrition, Mindshare, Managerial Grid Ã¢â¬Å"STYLES OF LEADERSHIP IN THE I.T. INDUSTRYÃ¢â¬ INTRODUCTION Leadership is the ability to influence individuals or groups toward the achievementRead MoreManagers Locus of Control to Managerial Style2683 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesObjective The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a relationship between a personÃ¢â¬â¢s direction of their locus of control and their managerial style. More specifically, their managerial style as it pertains to the Managerial GridÃ ® created by Blake and Mouton, and the Six Styles of Management developed by the HayGroup. The objective is to ascertain how influential the personality and self-esteem implications of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s locus of control is on their effectiveness in a managerial role. Read MoreTeam Conflict Development : Team Dynamics Theories1788 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesconduct a literature review of team conflict development, team dynamics theories in support of conflict competence, and provide abilities to effectively diagnose and address conflicts as they arise Introduction on the background of the conflict management One of the major contributors to the study of conflict management is The ThomasÃ¢â¬âKilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKIÃ¢â ¢). The instrument was created to a developed assist to help organizations in manger conflict. ThomasÃ¢â¬âKilmann worked on this projectRead MoreThe Health Of Maoris Communities2336 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesconference in London, where registration of nursing was discussed. On her way back to New Zealand she worked with Dr. Duncan Macgregor, inspector general of Hospitals,to draft the nurses Registration Act. the Act came into existence in January 1902.(Tabbner s Nursing Care: Theory and Practice By Rita Funnell, Gabby Koutoukidis, Karen Lawrence) and provided for a course of three years training and a State examination followed by registration New Zealand was the first nation to regulate nurses nationallyRead MoreOd Interventions2354 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pageswork team as the unit of analysis and change towards effective behaviour Thirdly od would normally view change as an on-going process and would rely on a collaborative management of work culture Types of od interventions : These interventions can be clubbed into twelve groups and they are diagnostic, team-building, inter-group activities, survey feedback methods, education and training programmes, techno-structural activities, process consultation, the management grid, meditation and negotiationRead MoreOd Interventions2368 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesa work team as the unit of analysis and change towards effective behaviour Thirdly od would normally view change as an on-going process and would rely on a collaborative management of work culture Types of od interventions : These interventions can be clubbed into twelve groups and they are diagnostic, team-building, inter-group activities, survey feedback methods, education and training programmes, techno-structural activities, process consultation, the management grid, meditation and negotiationRead MoreConflict Management Model Essay2081 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesConflict management model is propounded effective when the result of conflict is productive or acceptable for all the parties involved. The main motive of any conflict management model is to reduce the impact of conflict on negative note and guide parties towards agreement and strong relationship. This study is to analyze the effectiveness of RahimÃ¢â¬â¢s Meta or Dual concern model for conflict management. Rahim (2002) differentiated personÃ¢â¬â¢s perception towards handling a conflict into two: Ã¢â¬Å"concernRead MoreProject Report Example4667 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦. 5 Teamwork and Group Roles Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦ 6 Communication Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 9 Motivation Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 10 Conflict Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 11 Leadership Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 13 Conclusion Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 14 Table of Appendices Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Read MoreConflict Management in Nursing Essay example1859 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesConflict has been an issue for man since the dawn of civilization. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s fast paced world conflict, especially in the workplace, is a frequent occurrence. When that workplace is a health care environment where lives are at stake, emotions run high and collaboration with many different disciplines is required conflict often becomes a prevalent part of everyday life. Conflicts in the workplace can lead to reduced morale, lowered productivity resulting in decreased patient care and can cause
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Africa is one of the most vulnerable parts in the universe to Global Warming. This exposure and the restrictions of hapless states to accommodate to Global Warming challenges were highlighted in Climate Change 2001, the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) . The study established how human activity ( firing dodo fuels and alterations in land-use ) is modifying the planetary clime, with temperature rises projected for the following 100 old ages that could impact human public assistance and the environment. We will write a custom essay sample on Global Warming And Human Security In Ghana Environmental Sciences Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now The historical clime record for Africa shows heating of about 0.7AÃ °C over most of the continent during the 20th century ; a lessening in rainfall over big parts of the Sahel and West Africa and an addition in rainfall in other parts of Africa. Ghana is non exempted from the hazards of these recent alterations in Global Warming and alterations in conditions forms. Although the authorities is making good to decrease the consequence of Global Warming, Gganaians and most significantly local natives have been left behind in the consciousness and engagement in both determination and execution of clime alteration policies and patterns. The survey recommends the engagement of local people and an addition in climate alteration information airing to educate the public on steps to hold the consequence of Global Warming on human security, saving of H2O organic structures and the state Ã¢â¬Ës flora screen. . Chapter ONE Introduction 1.1 Background to the Problem Many scientists, economic experts and policy shapers now agree that the universe is confronting a menace from clime heating. The grade of the impact and its distribution is still debated. Current grounds suggests that states in temperate and polar locations may profit from little economic advantages because extra heating will profit their agricultural sectors. Many states in tropical and sub-tropical parts are expected to be more vulnerable to warming because extra heating will impact their fringy H2O balance and harm their agricultural sectors. However, small research has been done on tropical states, so small is known about the extent of these amendss. The job is expected to be most terrible in Africa where current information is the poorest, technological alteration has been the slowest, and the domestic economic systems depend to a great extent on agribusiness. African husbandmans have adapted a certain sum of clime variableness, but climate alteration may good coerce big parts o f fringy agribusiness out of production in Africa. The agribusiness sector is a major subscriber to the current economic system of most African states, averaging 21 % and runing from 10 % to 70 % of the GDP. Even without clime alteration, there are serious concerns about agribusiness in Africa because of H2O supply variableness, dirt debasement, and repeating drought events. A figure of states face semi-arid conditions that make agribusiness challenging. Further, development attempts have been peculiarly hard to prolong. African agribusiness has the slowest record of productiveness addition in the universe. Experts are concerned that the agribusiness sector in Africa will be particularly sensitive to future clime alteration and any addition in climate variableness. The current clime is already fringy with regard to precipitation in many parts of Africa. Further warming in these semi- arid locations is likely to be lay waste toing to agriculture at that place. Even in the moist Torrid Zones, increased heat is expected to cut down harvest outputs. Agronomic surveies suggest that outputs could fall rather dramatically in the absence of dearly-won version steps. The current agriculture engin eering is basic, and incomes low, proposing that husbandmans will hold few options to accommodate. Soon, public substructure such as roads, long-run conditions prognosiss, and agricultural research and extension are unequal to procure appropriate version. Unfortunately, none of the empirical surveies of clime impacts in Africa have explored what versions would be efficient for either African husbandmans or African authoritiess. This is a serious lack in African impact research, given the importance of efficient version. Although there are well-established concerns about clime alteration effects in Africa, there is small quantitative information refering how serious these effects will be. These theoretical accounts show that Africa is the most vulnerable continent in the universe to climate alteration. 1.3 Statement of the Problem In recent times, clime alteration has become important in the lives of ordinary people in Ghana and has become a topic of concern for turn toing socio-economic issues in Ghana. It has become so of import that several seminars and workshops have been held in Ghana to educate and research into issues of clime alteration. Surveies have shown that the consequence of clime alteration will devolve at a increasingly faster rate if disciplinary steps are non put in topographic point. Research findings besides indicate that clime alteration could hold an impact on human and socio-economic security. It is besides of import to observe that Ghana would be one of the states to be hardest hit by the effects of clime alteration though it contributes really small to it. Surveies have besides shown that the clime alteration would hold impacts on GDPs of most agricultural based economic systems. Despite the significance of clime alteration to Ghana and its socio economic sciences small research has be en done on the estimated impact on the ordinary Ghanaian and the macro economic sciences of the state. We need to happen out the jobs at interest, of important concern are, the nature of clime alteration in Ghana, the impact of clime alteration on homo and socio economic security. 1.4 Aims of the Study The chief aims of the survey is to analyze the nature of clime alteration in Ghana, the impact of clime alteration on homo and socio economic security. The research is aimed at specifically turn toing the followers: Nature of clime alteration in Ghana. The impact of clime alteration on Human security. The impact of clime alteration on socio-economic security. Solutions or extenuation of the impact of clime alteration. 1.5 Beginnings of Data and Methodology This subdivision will foreground the process and methods used in the research work. These consist of research design, country of survey, population sample and trying techniques, instruments for informations aggregation, method of informations aggregation and analyses of informations. 1.5.1 Research Design The research design adopted for this survey is descriptive. In this survey nevertheless a combination of instance survey and causal comparative designs were employed. This enabled the research to do usage of extended docudrama informations juxtaposed against the responses of administered questionnaires. 1.5.2 Area of Study The research covered the Sakumono Area. Sakumono is located in the coastal portion of Greater Accra Region. The country of survey is along the Accra Ã¢â¬â Tema beach route. Its length is stretches 20km apart. The Sakumono country is populated by fishermen and vegetable husbandmans and until late a important figure of urban inhabitants. 1.5.3 Sample and Sampling Technique A entire figure of 100 individuals dwelling of 20 fishermen, 20 fishwifes, 20 husbandmans, 20 market adult females, 10 craftsmen and 10 adult females with assorted trades participated in the survey. To guarantee the unity of relevant features like age, sex, matrimonial position and business, stratified random sampling technique was used for choice of the sample population. The population of traditional trades was grouped into fishermen and fishwifes, husbandmans and market Sellerss and other traditional trades. This technique ensured that all bomber groups ( fishermen, fishwifes, husbandmans, market Sellerss, and other traditional trades ) were adequately represented. 1.5.4 Instrument for Data Collection A questionnaire was used for informations aggregation. The questionnaire was designed in two parts, the first portion contained information on biographic informations of the respondents. The biographical information consists of age, sex, matrimonial position and figure of kids. The 2nd portion consists of a 14 point questionnaire grouped into 5 classs with sub points in each class. The research inquiries were used to beg information from the respondents on the followers: General cognition of the jobs of clime alteration. Impact of clime alteration on wellness and wellbeing. Impact of clime alteration on work end product. Expected action by policy shapers and authoritiess to extenuate the impact of clime alteration. 1.6 Significance of Study Climate alteration is a menace to humanity, and to Ghana as a developing state the impacts are far making. The survey would be good to locals, kids in Sakumono, the fishermen, market common people, the territory assembly, estate contractors, the authorities and Non-Governmental Organizations ( NGOs ) . Finally the survey will function as a base mention for farther academic surveies. 1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study 1.7.1 Scope This research was based on grownups with traditional trades within the Sakumono country. It besides focused on interviews with experts in the field of clime alteration. 1.7.2 Restriction The research work was confronted with some challenges during the survey. The first job was that respondents were disbelieving as to the grounds for the research. Some people thought it was information assemblage for relocation. After the necessary account and confidence from the research worker the respondents began to collaborate but at a point started demanding for some pecuniary wages for replying the questionnaires. The research worker besides found it hard measuring needful paperss from the metrological section of Ghana since they were unavailable. 1.8 Literature Review In this subdivision a aggregation of constructs aimed to reexamine the critical points of current cognition in clime alteration has been analyzed based on the survey aims. These constructs are secondary beginnings, and as such, do non describe any new or original findings. 1.8.1 Nature of Climate Change Climate alteration is fast turning to be one of the top issues that resonate in all corridors of treatment that affect human endurance and development. Human endurance is bit by bit been disturbed by the changing of the conditions which to many people is as a consequence of human activities. From worlds to livestock everyone is affected by the changing of the conditions. The conditions is going warmer and doing intolerable conditions to human endurance. Water organic structures, agribusiness and energy are earnestly been affected. Climate alteration has hence become a planetary issue that requires a planetary response. The scientific discipline tells us that emanations have the same effects from wherever they arise. The deduction for the economic sciences is that this is clearly and unequivocally an international corporate action job with all the attendant troubles of bring forthing consistent action and of avoiding free equitation. It is a job necessitating international cooperation and leading. On the African scene, many analysts have noticed that the continent has contributed small to planetary clime alteration. Harmonizing to Camilla Toulmin, Africa has contributed really small to Global Warming. The nature of Climate Change and the breakability of African states means that African states will be negatively affected by agribusiness, land and natural resources. 1.8.2 The Impact of Climate Change on Human Security Climate alteration will impact the basic elements of life for people around the universe Ã¢â¬â entree to H2O, nutrient production, wellness, and the environment. Hundreds of 1000000s of people could endure hunger, H2O deficits and coastal implosion therapy as the universe warms, every bit good as high degrees of poorness and hapless administration has made Africa peculiarly vulnerable to the effects of clime alteration. Climate alteration will ensue in deficit of resources for human ingestion this may trip struggle between and within states, as resources and safe topographic points become scarcer, and catastrophes destroy supports, increasing the figure of migrators and refugees. For illustration, Edward, Shankar and Sergenti explicate how deficits in seasonal rains that result in drouth and economic hurt addition the likeliness of civil war by up to 50 % . Again At that meeting Margaret Beckett, UK Ã¢â¬Ës Foreign Secretary, warned about migration on an unprecedented graduated t able due to deluging, disease and dearth. She besides said that drouth and harvest failure could do intensified competition for nutrient, H2O and energy. Ã¢â¬Å" It is about our corporate security in a fragile and progressively mutualist universe, Ã¢â¬ she said. Climate alteration besides has major economic deductions. Harmonizing OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien with clime alteration, human security in one topographic point or for one group is progressively linked to the actions and results of others possible struggles happening between nutrient and fuel production in competition for land and other resources and in the publicity of bio-fuels and other extenuation steps. Stern farther indicates that the investing that takes topographic point in the following 10 -20 old ages will hold a profound consequence on the clime in the 2nd half of this century and in the following. But if the degree of apathy shown by most states persist it would be obvious in the coming decennaries, could make hazards of major break to economic and societal activity, on a graduated table similar to those associated with the great wars and the economic depression of the first half of the twentieth century. And it will be hard or impossible to change by reversal these alterations. 1.8.3 The Impact of Climate Change on Socio-Economic Security Socio-economic factors of any state is fundamentally of its indispensable services such H2O, nutrient, adjustment and energy. These are what most unluckily has become straight impacted by Global Warming. Harmonizing to Margaret Beckett, UK Ã¢â¬Ës Foreign Secretary, warned about migration on an unprecedented graduated table due to deluging, disease and dearth. She besides said that drouth and harvest failure could do intensified competition for nutrient, H2O and energy. Ã¢â¬Å" It is about our corporate security in a fragile and progressively mutualist universe, Ã¢â¬ she said. Climate alteration besides has major economic deductions. Harmonizing to a 2006 study by Sir Nicholas Stern the costs of accommodating to climate alteration could be every bit much as 10 % of universe economic end product. 1.8.4 Extenuation to the Impact of Global Warming As noticed by Sachs ( 2008 ) the attempt in turn toing Global Warming needs prompt and strong action. Because clime alteration is a planetary job, the response to it must be international. It must be based on a shared vision of long-run ends and understanding on models that will speed up action over the following decennary, and it must construct on reciprocally reenforcing attacks at national, regional and international degree. Furthermore, Stern ( 2009 ) estimates that if the universe does non move on holding the badness of Global Warming the overall costs and hazards of clime alteration will be tantamount to losing at least 5 % of planetary GDP each twelvemonth. If a wider scope of hazards and impacts is taken into history, the estimations of harm could lift to 20 % of GDP or more. This surely will be a intensifying suffering to already reeling and weak economic system position of most African states including Ghana In contrast, planetary economic analysts have besides estimated that the costs of action for cut downing nursery gas emanations to avoid the worst impacts of clime alteration could be limited to around 1 % of planetary GDP each twelvemonth. It has been suggested by Wangari ( 2004 ) that the usage of traditional cognition could be a great replacement in covering with Global Warming. Traditional cognition can be seen as that which emerges from the interaction amongst persons and between persons and their environment, ensuing in a merchandise, which has been formed and transformed by the society itself. The cognition, which is a societal concept, harmonizing to is culturally specific and has its distinguishable features, It is embedded in societal value, beliefs or norms, expressed in narratives, traditional music and other cultural activities. Local cognition that addresses climate alteration can be made from three types of information: Accrued cultural cognition, Knowledge modified through contact with other civilizations, and progressive acquisition of the environment. Autochthonal Peoples have historically played an active function in the preservation of eco-systems important to the bar of clime change.. Traditional norms and regulations have it that some yearss are prohibited for the harvest home of fuel wood in these forest channels. These steps go a long manner to let the forest to retrieve and make the status for the forest to function as a C sink to attend Global Warming. Sacred grooves or countries are frequently associated with cultural rites, such as rainmaking. Members of the community are prohibited from executing certain activities in them, including hunting, assemblage, wood film editing, cultivating, graze, etc. Taboo yearss and the establishment of local Torahs on hunting and fishing have helped to conserv e biodiversity. 1.8.5 Traveling to a Low-Carbon Global Economy Another of import measure needed to undertake Global Warming is by following the cognition in traveling to a low-carbon planetary economic system. The first is carbon pricing, through revenue enhancement, emanations trading or ordinance, so that people are faced with the full societal costs of their actions. The purpose should be to construct a common planetary C monetary value across states and sectors. Secondary, Simon ( 2007 ) contend that there is the demand to hold a comprehensive policy on engineering to drive the development and deployment at graduated table of a scope of low-carbon and high-efficiency merchandises. And the 3rd is action to take barriers to energy efficiency, and to inform, educate and carry persons about what they can make to react to climate alteration. Additionally, Ogata A ; Sen ( 2003 ) have observed that action on clime alteration will make important concern chances, as new markets are created in low-carbon energy engineerings and other low-carbon goods and services. These markets could turn to be deserving 100s of one million millions of dollars each twelvemonth, and employment in these sectors will spread out consequently. The concluding thought would be to undertake clime alteration is the pro-growth scheme for the longer term, and it can be done in a manner that does non crest the aspirations for growing of rich or hapless states. 1.9 Agreements of Chapters Chapter one of the survey, comprise of the debut, which provides a brief background of the survey, the statement of the job every bit good as the significance of the survey. It besides outlines the general aims of the survey, the methodological analysis used for informations assemblage and analysis every bit good as a replete of literature refering the survey country. The 2nd chapter offers a comprehensive overview of the survey country, measuring the chief issues concerned which included international conventions protocols and pacts, challenges of clime alteration docket, the stairss taken to cut downing the impact of Global Warming and a situational instance of Global Warming in Ghana. Chapter three elaborates on both primary and secondary informations collected which entails presentation of facts and analysis of research results. The last chapter ( chapter four ) outlines the drumhead, decision and recommendations of the survey. ENDNOTES Chapter TWO OVERVIEW OF STUDY AREA 2.1 Definitions 2.1.1 Global Warming Global Warming is the regional or global-scale alterations in historical clime forms originating from natural and/or semisynthetic causes and ensuing in both intermittent but progressively frequent, utmost impacts ( e.g. big storms and heat moving ridges ) and slow on-set, permeant, cumulative effects ( e.g. extinction of life signifiers and sea degree rise ) ( Simon, 2007 ) ; climate alteration involves the interactions of many systems, such as the ambiance, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere, every bit good as the human systems. In this survey Global Warming will be used interchangeably with clime alteration. 2.1.2 Environmental security Environmental security is the protection of people from short- and long-run depredations of nature, semisynthetic menaces to nature, and impairment of the natural environment. 2.1.3 Hazard A jeopardy is a potentially detrimental physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may do loss of life or hurt, belongings harm, societal and economic break or environmental debasement ( UN/ISDR, 2004 ) . 2.1.4 Human security Human security is the protection of Ã¢â¬Å" the critical nucleus of all human lives in ways that enhance human freedoms and fulfilment Ã¢â¬ ( Ogata A ; Sen, 2003 ) ; the security of persons, their supports, and human rights including economic security, nutrient security, wellness security, environmental security, personal security, community security and political security. 2.2 International Conventions, Protocols and Treaties The demand for international Conventions, Protocols and Treaties mostly is based on the fact that all states will be affected by alteration in clime. The most vulnerable, the poorest states and Populations will endure earliest and most, even though they have contributed least to the causes of clime alteration. The international convention puts a duty and committedness to every individual state to lend in little manner to cut downing the impact of the Global Warming. Since the consciousness of Global Warming took centre phase in planetary treatment there has been hosts of conventions, protocols and pacts that country geared towards sustainable development and environmental understandings. The 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, offers a roadmap towards sustainable development. Chapter 24, entitled Ã¢â¬ Global Action for Women towards Sustainable Development Ã¢â¬ , calls upon authoritiess to extinguish all obstructions to adult females Ã¢â¬Ës full engagement in sustainable development and public life At the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, the importance of governmental committedness towards the decrease of activities that result in Global Warming was reaffirmed. The Convention to Combat Desertification ( UNCCD, 1994 ) most clearly recognizes the function of adult females in rural supports and encourages the full engagement of adult females and work forces in the execution of the convention. The UNCCD stresses the of import function played by adult females in parts affected by desertification and/or drouth, peculiarly in rural countries in developing states. Although the 1992 Convention on Biodiversity recognizes preservation and sustainable usage of biological diverseness The following convention to be looked at is the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC ) , which recognized the full engagement of husbandmans and pastoral rural folks. Additionally, the Kyoto Protocol, that outlines decreases in nursery grass instituted inter-governmental dialogues under the UNFCCC are germinating around the cardinal countries: extenuation, version, engineering and finance. At the 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference ( COP13 ) in Bali, dialogues began for the post-Kyoto government ( 2012 and beyond ) . 2.3 Stairss to Reduce the Impact of Global Warming States confronting diverse fortunes will utilize different attacks to do their part to undertaking clime alteration. But action by single states is non plenty. Each state, nevertheless big, is merely a portion of the job. It is indispensable for states to hold a shared international vision of long-run ends. The undermentioned stairss as outlined provide a really utile suggestion to planetary policy shapers in their effort to outline a policy for universe to follow: Expanding and associating the turning figure of emanations merchandising strategies around the universe is a powerful manner to advance cost-efficient decreases in emanations and to convey forward action in developing states: strong marks in rich states could drive flows amounting to 10s of one million millions of dollars each twelvemonth to back up the passage to low-carbon development waies. Informal co-ordination every bit good as formal understandings can hike the effectivity of investings in invention around the universe. Globally, support for energy R A ; D should at least dual, and support for the deployment of new low-carbon engineerings should increase up to five-fold. International co- operation on merchandise criterions is a powerful manner to hike energy efficiency. The loss of natural woods around the universe contributes more to planetary emanations each twelvemonth than the conveyance sector. Controling deforestation is a extremely cost-efficient manner to cut down emanations ; big scale international pilot programmes to research the best ways to make this could acquire afoot really rapidly. The poorest states are most vulnerable to climate alteration. It is indispensable that clime alteration be to the full integrated into development policy, and that rich states honour their pledges to increase support through abroad development aid. 2.4 Global Warming in Ghana Ghana lies on the West seashore of Africa with a Population of about 25million. The entire land country of Ghana is 238,539km2. Agribusiness represents the most of import land usage type in footings of its spacial coverage. Agribusiness in the wood takes up more than 75 % of the land while in the northern savannas ; the coverage is between 50 and 60 % . About 11 % of the land country of Ghana is under preservation. Whiles at that place has non been a important happening of natural catastrophes compared to other Asiatic and African states there are still pockets of instabilities as a consequence of the emerging issue of climate alteration. The most detrimental impacts to climate alteration for Ghana has been to H2O resources, agribusiness, and drouths. About 80 % of Ghana Ã¢â¬Ës population depends on Agriculture for a life. Agribusiness in Ghana is extremely vulnerable to climate alteration variableness and long term clime Change which would ensue in a higher nutrient monetary values, lower domestic grosss and broadening of current history shortages due to lower export net incomes together with increased rising prices and increased external liability ( Zaragoza, 2005 Namikat, 2005 ) Ghana Ã¢â¬Ës environment and cardinal natural resources have been progressively threatened by intensifying and unsustainable force per unit areas from fast turning population, spread outing agricultural and industrial activities and rapid urbanisation. One other major issue associated with biodiversity in Ghana is the loss of home ground and the depletion of biological resources. Persistent development of the Savannah has resulted in widespread debasement. Forest flora and dirts hold about 40 % of all the C stored in tellurian ecosystems. Release of C as a consequence of deforestation contributes to planetary clime alteration. The grounds of Global Warming in Ghana is clear in the face of a reduced rainfall, increase temperature and vaporization in dry countries, Frequent drouth enchantments taking to terrible H2O deficit, Change in seting day of the months of one-year harvests, Increased fungous eruptions and insect infestations due to alterations in temperature and humidness, Decrease in forest country and country under cultivation and Increased potency of malaria transmittal and loads on the state Ã¢â¬Ës wellness attention system. A national Committee on Climate Change is hosted by the Ministry of Environment. This commission has the authorization of reexamining policies and plans to complement national precedences and contribute to decrease of nursery gas emanations and an addition in C sinks. The Ministry is the focal point for UNFCCC activities ( Agyeman-Bonsu, 2007a ) . Ghana signed the UNFCCC in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. The Convention entered intoforce globally on 21 March 1994 and specifically for Ghana on December 5, 1995, three months after Ghana ratified the Convention. In 2002, Ghana Ã¢â¬Ës Parliament passed a declaration to sign the Kyoto Protocol ( KP ) and the KP entered into force globally on 16 February 2005 ( Agyeman-Bonsu, 2007b ) ENDNOTES Chapter THREE Evaluation OF DATA 3.1 Presentation of Datas A sum of 100 respondents took portion in this survey, consisting of 20 ( 20 ) representatives from each of the followers: fishermen, fishwifes, husbandmans, market adult females. There were besides were ten ( 10 ) craftsmen and 10s ( 10 ) adult females with assorted trades participated in the survey. The chief thought for placing the respondents above, recognized the above mentioned professions are chiefly been engaged by the citizens and by gender, the survey intend to set up the degree of exposure between work forces and adult females. The causes of Global Warming, impacts and how each of the identified group of respondents react to Global Warming in footings of energy wellness, H2O and life conditions. 3.2 Biographic Information For equal gender representation, an equal figure of 50 were drawn from both males and females for the survey. Table 1. Sexual activity of Respondents Males Number Respondents Females Number Respondents Fishermans 20 Fishmongers 20 Farmers 20 Market adult females 20 Craftsmans 20 Womans in Trades 10 Sum 50 50 3.3 Age distribution of respondents The mean age among the male respondents is 40 with that of females being 49. Most of the work forces ( 60 % of male respondents ) were aged above 35 whilst for the female respondents ; about 70 per centum were aged above 35. 3.4 Marital position Refering the matrimonial position of the respondents, 60 per centum of fishermen were married, 15 per centum had divorced, and 10 per centum were besides widowed. On a similar note, more husbandmans were said they were married ( 85 % ) , 10 per centum were widowed but 5 per centum were divorced. Among the craftsmen interviewed, more than half ( 60 % ) said they had married, none had experienced divorced but 40 per centum had neÃ¢â¬â¢er married. On the portion of the female respondents, 80 per centum of the fishwifes, 70 per centum of market adult females and 50 per centum of adult females in trades said they were married. Besides, 10 per centum of fishwifes, 20 per centum of market adult females and adult females in trades had experienced divorced. More adult females in trades ( 30 % ) have neÃ¢â¬â¢er married and besides more of such adult females were widowed compared to the remainder of the respondents. Table 1 Marital Status of Respondents Profession Married % Divorced % Never Married % Widowed % Fishermans 12 60 3 15 2 10 3 15 Farmers 17 85 1 5 0 0 2 10 Craftmen 6 60 0 0 4 4 0 0 Fishmongers 16 80 2 10 1 1 1 5 Market adult females 14 70 4 20 0 0 2 10 Womans in trades 5 50 2 20 3 3 0 0 Sum 70 12 10 8 3.5 General cognition of the jobs of clime alteration The survey enquired signifier respondents their cognition about clime alteration. It was revealed that more of males ( 46 % male respondents were cognizant of clime alteration ) were cognizant of the planetary consent to climate alter the attempts of change by reversaling the tendency than female respondents ( 30 % of females respondents were cognizant of clime alteration ) . Figure 1. Awareness of Climate Change Campaign In all merely 38 per centum of the respondents indicated their consciousness to climate alteration run. Despite their ignorance about the run, most of the male respondents were cognizant of the jobs climate alteration is doing, mentioning among other things, hot conditions. 3.6 Impact of clime alteration on wellness and good being 60 per centum of female respondents complained of frequent wellness jobs but merely 46 % of male respondents said they have noticed alterations in wellness related jobs. More fishermen ( 65 % ) reported that the rate of trial to infirmary hold increased in recent times. This is followed by adult females in trades, where 50 % indicated of frequent wellness jobs. On the general wellbeing of the people interviewed, a pouncing proportion of females ( 90 % ) complained of economic adversity as a consequence of less gross revenues and lower incomes. Besides, about 55 % of males interviewed complained that there has been recent economic adversity as a consequence of decrease in end product of work. 3.7 Impact of clime alteration on work end product From the survey, 60 % female respondents indicated that productiveness has enormously reduced. As one adult female commented Ã¢â¬Å" bad conditions affects the fish we can catch Ã¢â¬ . Less fish caught affect the gross revenues and gross of fishwifes, which finally reduces incomes for families. Craftsmans and adult females in unidentified trade both complained of deficit of gross revenues marks. 3.8 Expected action by policy shapers and authoritiess to extenuate the impact of clime alteration The survey farther wanted to happen out the expected actions locals expect from authoritiess and policy shapers with respect to climate alteration. The consequence were that 55 % of entire respondents said their positions as locals and natives needed to be sought when outlining any national policy. Respondents who presumptively are at the closest to the creative activity and care of clime alteration are non included in policy and decision-making. About 20 % said they wanted authorities to demo more commitment to any policy drafted and shoot more financess towards climate direction. 3.9 Pictures demoing the impact of Global Warming on the Sakumono Lagoon The images in Appendix B seek to reenforce the points that Global Warming is impacting human and economic security in Ghana. The captioned exposure depicts assorted cases and conditions back uping this averment. Chapter FOUR SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 4.1 Drumhead The activities of few fabrication and agricultural industries in Ghana consequences in high-carbon coevals that has negative effects on clime alteration. Alternate low-carbon emanations that would non cut down economic growing could be used where available. It has been established that developed states account for 80 % of planetary emanations lending to the depletion of the ozone bed. The necessary force per unit area could be put on states most responsible for green house concentration in the ambiance to cut down their emanations significantly. The research found out that ordinances on land usage was loose and those who degrade land travel unpunished. Methods could be devised to better land direction of ecological sites to conserve biodiversity, peculiarly in wetland countries. There no local engagement in protection and direction of the Sakumono laguna and its environments. The Autochthonal people could be included in the preservation of eco-systems through the usage of local imposts to forestall clime alteration. Thirty-eight per centum of the respondents were non cognizant of the impacts of Global Warming and could non entree and utilize day-to-day conditions prognosiss of the Meteorological Department. The usage of local idioms could be used to better conditions information distribution. The research established that 67 % the respondents were non adequately accommodated and were at hazard of the conditions. Housing strategies on flexible footings could be provided to locals who can non afford equal lodging. Waste disposal at the Sakumono Lagoon and its environ were disorderly and set in topographic points that threatened the endurance of the laguna with its vegetations and zoologies. Existing environmental ordinances on waste disposal could be enforced. The respondents Ã¢â¬Ë reported 89 % frequent contraction of respiratory diseases in the past 5 old ages. Health installations could be extended to the locals particularly those prone to these diseases ( the aged and kids ) . The research established that there were no co-ops supplying fiscal and other signifiers of support for the hapless land-dwellers, fishermen and market adult females. Cooperatives could be formed to supply fiscal and other signifiers of support to the locals in the Sakumono general country. Eighty-five per centum of respondents use wood coal or firewood for cookery intents. The debut of reasonably monetary value gas could cut down dependance on wood coal and firewood. 4.2 Decision Ghana is vulnerable and delicate to climate alteration depends chiefly as a consequence of less governmental committedness and deficiency of information to the chief participants of the environment. This is coupled with institutional failings and this could take to serious impact on wellness, nutrient, H2O and endurance of its citizen in decennaries in front. 4.3 Recommendations The authorities and municipal assemblies in Climate Change extenuation should concentrate on alternate low C development and usage, that does non cut down economic growing. On international platforms and during international conventions the authorities should set the necessary force per unit area on states most responsible for green house concentration in the ambiance to cut down emanations significantly. Industries in Ghana, both fabrication and agricultural should follow emanation decrease inventions where available. The Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources in concurrence with municipal assemblies should invent steps to better land direction of ecological sites to conserve biodiversity, peculiarly in our wetland countries. There is the demand to name for multi sectorial attack to a sustainable development scheme of the environment which recognizes the engagement of Autochthonal people because of their historical engagement as active participants in the preservation of eco-systems important to the bar of clime alteration. The Meteorological Department should set up improved conditions prediction and information distribution. The authorities, municipal assemblies and non-governmental administrations should assist the autochthonal and hapless population at hazard to efficaciously get by with high temperature extremes and fickle rainfall forms. This can be done by supplying strategies to supply places with better insularity and aeration, against utmost heat and cold conditions every bit good as offer other building betterments. The Environmental Protection Council should implement ordinances on waste disposal. The Ghana Health Service should be active in the proviso of timely wellness support for susceptible people. Banks and NGOs should provide for and beef up concerted establishments to let hapless land-dwellers, fishermen and market adult females to portion the costs associated with market engagement. The Ministry of Energy should hasten and regulate the proviso of domestic gas. How to cite Global Warming And Human Security In Ghana Environmental Sciences Essay, Essay examples
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Question: Discuss about theStrategic Managementfor Behavioral Economics. Answer: Introduction Garbuio, M., Lovallo, D., Ketenciouglu., E (2013) Behavioural Economics and Strategic Decision Making, in Thomas, C Shughart, W (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Managerial Economics, Oxford The article has clearly discussed how strategy making for a particular project is conducted in the modern era upon a set of principles. The principles are mainly based on the most discussed techniques that have been said to be in trend among the executives and the other officials in the upper designations. They remain mainly based on the decisions which are adopted by the company usually on the behalf of the owners. This is indeed believed by me to be a very good step as the higher officials are mostly incorporated within the main workforce and work culture o a higher degree than the owners. Previously the strategy making in the twentieth century were mainly based on the relationship shared by the strategy making models and the economic theory. This mainly was based on the traditional assumptions of the economic theory that mainly contributed the forming of the early evolution strategic theories, analytical tools and also different frameworks. However, the main issue was that it mainly lacked proper predictions and the assumptions which are very important to assess the results of the strategic theory that needed to be evaluated for the predictions had no way to confirm the data.. This criterion has been clearly discussed in the articles which have effectively brought out the main concerns with that of the early methods of strategy making based on economic theories. Just making prediction based on the rationality is not accepted by the recent day executives. Therefore behavioral assumptions have come to the rescue. New approaches of the behavioral objectives like the behavioral economics, behavioral finance and behavioral corporate finance, its study thoroughly and followed by their application in the strategy making have been believed to find out the best results . The strategy makers have mainly based their analysis on the three important characteristics which are indeed very important in the strategy making which are based on the market entry and exit in mergers and acquisitions The first involves the decisions to be not only rare and complex and even absorb a large portions of the resources of the company. Moreover the decisions which are taken take a lot of time because this decisions need to evaluate the cist and benefits associated with the strategy and also to seek for managerial consensus. The third mainly concerns the feedback mainly in the terms of profits and losses which are realized and therefore gets delayed and thereby becomes difficult to identify it as the cause and effective mechanisms. Non standard preferences help the executives to evaluate long term investments. They are also believed to be underinvest in long term investments and also explore new opportunities. They have also developed a habit of asking more when selling rather higher to those which they would have paid if they were the buyers. Distortion of internalization strategies, preferring adjacent over domestic markets and others are some of the initiatives should be taken. Nonstandard beliefs also play an important role in three different aspects handled by the executives like the first being internal situation of the company, the external situation of the company and thirdly their tendency to overweigh internal causes success and external causes of failures resulting in decisions which are distorted. Moreover they also follow the heuristics and biases while decision making that helps them to analyze the weakness and strengths of the organizational along with the external factors and thereby take decisions in strategy making. Thereby by providing different types of such tactics in behavioral economics and behavioral finance, strategies can be put forward for an organization. Shields, J.,Shelleman, J (2015) Integrating Sustainability into SME strategy, Journal of Small Business, Vol.25, No.2, pp.59-75. The paper mainly focuses on incorporating a number of sustainability considerations in case of the different small and medium enterprises called the SMEs. O feel that indeed it is a very noble prospective for the companies which have about 20 members in them and thereby can see high levels of success. The paper has shown that how a flexible structure of framework can be incorporated in the various sectors of the SMEs so that they can integrate sustainable development in their company structure. Many companies have been observed to lack the awareness of the benefits of addressing sustainability and therefore it has been seen that a proper SWOT analysis helps such companies. The paper had rightly focused on an important issue that the recent day SMEs face and therefore this article have been found to help a large number of companies to guide them with right direction. This article had also helped to act as a tool that will help the companies to analyze various issues in terms of strength and weaknesses and thereby help in analyzing and proper handling the threats faced by the companies in implementation of the new techniques to develop sustainability. I have seen in many case studies that a proper SWOT analysis from time to time helps in modifying the techniques and thereby implement results. I have seen that the SWOTS have been excessively useful because the SWOT system mainly helps in analyzing issues in those companies where the SMEs have limited resources. Over the years not only small companies, but also different big companies have taken the resort of SWOT that had helped them to excel in their fields. The checklist provided by them helps to provide a matrix which helps the SMEs to identify the issue that act as barriers for strategic sustainability implementation and thereby help the companies to seek then to help in optimizing the congruence between the internal capabilities and external cells in the matrix. This helps in examining the current status of the company and the various potential that it requires to meet the competitive demand. Researchers over the years have also made SWOT an important tool for any business student to learn business of different companies and hence its authenticity as a tool can never come under suspicion. When the SME would find that they possess much strength after a SWOT analysis, they readily become proactive in improving sustainability performance. This help to provide better understanding of the stakeholder and thereby would help to understand the preferences of the customers. Here the strengths that they possess will be converted by them to further development of the capability of the company. This will then be logically analyzed which will be followed by enthusiasm to achieve the benefits of improved sustainability and its performance. This may include cost reduction, brand enhancement, risk reduction and others. Hence one can find here how the first criteria of SWOT that is strength can rightly help SMEs to identify their potential which they can venture and develop more in future When the SME finds that the company has lots of weaknesses instead of strength, the company should take immediate actions and face the strategic imperative. They should immediately the action to mitigate the different weaknesses through a variety of steps which would in turn help the companies to develop internal capabilities that mainly address the sustainability. Here, the second criteria of SWOT called the Weakness are rightly described which helps SME to be careful enough and introduce interventions to handle such weaknesses to achieve their mission fast. Not only this, several other factors also needs to be assessed by the company and identify issues in company capabilities, stakeholder preferences and also a number of environmental trends which can be described in forms of threats and opportunities that the SME harbor. However it is very important to avoid the parallel organization concept for sustainability with lesser priority that tends to analyze when times are tough. In this way one can apply the evaluation of the SWOT analysis in developing the sustainability development. I have seen that the Sustainability SWOT helps to give attentions to the draw attention towards the stakeholder and also helps to point any concerns that may be treated as sustainability implication and can affect the entire business. In this way over time it will become incorporated in the main business strategy as its sustainability strategy and thereby would help to overcome issues. I believe that the SME which gives importance to sustainability management with correct researches through SWOT will perform better achieving a higher productivity than those which fail to do so. References: Cornelissen, Joep P., and Mirjam D. Werner. "Putting framing in perspective: A review of framing and frame analysis across the management and organizational literature."Academy of Management Annals8, no. 1 (2014): 181-235. Garbuio, Massimo, Dan Lovallo, and Elif Ketenciouglu. "Behavioral economics and strategic decision making." (2013). Hollensen, Svend.Marketing management: A relationship approach. Pearson Education, 2015. Shields, Jeff, and Joyce M. Shelleman. "Integrating Sustainability into SME Strategy."Journal of Small Business Strategy25, no. 2 (2015): 59.